Saturday, March 29, 2008

What TOOTHPASTE all about

Fluoride in various forms is the most popular active ingredient in toothpaste to prevent cavities. Although it occurs in small amounts in plants and animals, and has effects on the formation of dental enamel and bones, it is not considered to be a dietary essential and no deficiency signs are known. Sodium fluoride (NaF) is the most common form; some brands use sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2PO3F).

Nearly all toothpaste sold in the United States has 1000 to 1100 parts per million fluoride ion from one of these active ingredients, in the UK the fluoride content is often higher, a NaF of 0.32% w/w (1450ppm fluoride) is not uncommon. This consistency leads some to conclude that cheap toothpaste is just as good as expensive toothpaste.

When the magazine Consumer Reports rated toothpastes in 1998, 30 of the 38 were judged excellent. Application of fluoride also prevents moisture build-up in some surfaces.

Fluoride has been used in toothpaste since the 1950s: history of fluoride use. A range of other ingredients are less commonly used. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals are used for remineralization, as in the Apagard and BlanX brands.

A more recent family of active ingredients use calcium phosphate for remineralization. Calcium phosphate technologies include: NovaMin
Amorphous Calcium Phosphate
Nanit active

These are used both with and without fluoride. Calprox is used in Supersmile. Cuprident uses mono-copper citrate (MCC). Some toothpastes include ingredients to reduce sensitivity; they can either treat an underlying cause (if sensitivity is caused by demineralization, remineralization repairs this), or suppressing the symptoms by desensitizing the nerves. Other ingredients Many, though not all, toothpastes contain sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or another of the sulfate family.

SLS is found in other personal care products as well, such as shampoo, and is largely a foaming agent. SLS may cause a greater frequency of mouth ulcers in some people as it can dry out the protective layer of oral tissues causing the underlying tissues to become damage. Some brands include powdered white mica.

This acts as a mild abrasive to aid polishing of the tooth surface, and also adds a cosmetically-pleasing glittery shimmer to the paste. Many may include frustules of dead diatoms, as a mild abrasive. Ingredients such as baking soda, enzymes, vitamins, herbs, calcium, calcium sodium phosphosilicate, mouthwash, and/or hydrogen peroxide are often combined into base mixes and marketed as being beneficial. Some manufacturers add antibacterial agents, for example triclosan or zinc chloride, to prevent gingivitis. Triclosan is a very common ingredient in the UK.

Toothpaste comes in a variety of flavors, most often being some variation on mint (spearmint, peppermint, regular mint, etc). Other more exotic flavors include: anise, apricot, bubblegum (marketed mostly to children), cinnamon, fennel, neem, ginger, vanilla, lemon, orange, pine. Flavors which have been introduced but discontinued due to poor reception include peanut butter, iced tea, and even whisky.

Some brands of toothpaste are unflavored,but many are both flavored and sweetened. Because sugar can cause tooth decay, artificial sweeteners are generally employed for this purpose. The inclusion of sweet-tasting but toxic diethylene glycol in Chinese-made toothpaste led to a multi-nation and multi-brand toothpaste recall in 2007. Many toothpastes contain colorings for better visual acceptance.

Toxicity With the exception of toothpaste intended to be used on pets such as dogs and cats, and toothpaste used by astronauts, most toothpaste is not intended to be swallowed, and doing so may cause nausea or diarrhea; fluoride toothpaste is toxic when swallowed.

Extended consumption while the teeth are forming can result in fluorosis. This is why young children should not use fluoride toothpaste except under close supervision. There are several non-fluoride toothpaste options available in the market for those with no tolerance to fluoride.

Striping of toothpaste is solely for the purpose of providing an alternative appearance; it provides no functional benefit to the consumer. Striped toothpaste can be produced by including two different colored toothpastes in an unusual type of packaging. The collapsible tube has two tanks, one filled with each color paste (see figure). Squeezing the tube pushes the two pastes out the opening.

The tube nozzle layers the pastes to produce a striped pattern. To keep the cost of packaging to a minimum, it is now common for tubes to be filled with striped paste (e.g. Aquafresh). As the tube is squeezed, the stripes flow parallel to each other and do not mix.

The patterned paste that gets dipensed is simply a narrower version of what is in the tube. Filling is done using a multi-nozzle filling head that dispenses a different colored stripe in each direction. To keep the stripes parallel to the axis of the tube, the head starts at the bottom and retracts as it fills, staying just above the level of the paste. Tubes with two compartments are generally reserved for toothpastes containing two formulas intended to react together and therefore kept isolated until dispensed.


Hidden Animal Products

It is very difficult to avoid animals products in this 'modern day and age'. Here is a list of some common things that surprisingly contain animal derivatives and others that are safe.

Casein: This is a product made when milk is heated with an acid, like lactic acid. This stuff mostly occurs in "no-lactose" soy cheeses like Soyco, Soy Kaas, AlmondRella, Zero-FatRella, HempRella, and TofuRella Slices.
The labels say "lactose-free" (lactose is another milk derivative), but that doesn't mean they are therefore vegan, as we used to incorrectly assume. Soymage soy cheese is 100% vegan, but it's kind of gross. Vegan-Rella is also totally vegan. Casein is also used in plastics, adhesives, and paint manufacturing.
Caseinate: Casein mixed with a metal, like calcium caseinate or sodium caseinate.
Chewing Gum: Some chewing gums contain glycerine. Wrigleys gum contains a vegetarian source of glycerine.
Margarines: Can contain fish and other marine oils. Many margarines contain whey.
Nougat: Usually contains gelatine.
Pasta: May contain egg, especially if fresh. Some pasta in Italy contains squids's ink; this can easily be recognized because the pasta is black.
Pastes: Glues. May be animal or fish derived.
Pastry: Animal fats used in most shop-baked pies etc. Check ingredients.
Phosphates: Derived from glycerol and fatty acids. May be from animal bones too.
Rennet: An enzyme taken from the stomach of a newly killed calf. Used in the cheese making process. Look for rennin or the words "made without animal rennet".
Shortening: Can be made from animal fats. Used in the food industry especially pastries and biscuits.
Stearate: This usually comes in the form of _calcium stearate_, and it is found in hard candies like Gobstoppers and Sweetarts as well as other places. It comes from stearic acid, which usually is derived from tallow, or animal fat. Stearate is also used in vinyls (like car seats) and plastics.
Sweets: Watch out for gelatine, eg.: wine gums. Nearly all mints eg.: Polo, Trebor, Extra Strong etc contain gelatine. See also Nougat.
Whey: Liquid part of Milk

What is cochineal/carmine?

Cochineal is a bright red colouring matter made from the dried bodies of a Mexican insect Dactylopius coccus. Billions of these insects are raised and destroyed each year for a red colouring that is used in desserts, some strawberry soya milks, clothing, etc.

What is cochineal/carmine?

Cochineal is a bright red colouring matter made from the dried bodies of a Mexican insect Dactylopius coccus. Billions of these insects are raised and destroyed each year for a red colouring that is used in desserts, some strawberry soya milks, clothing, etc.

Which animal derived ingredients kill the animal?

Not an easy question to answer! Meat and products such as leather, bonemeal, blood and gelatin are obvious ones, although in parts of India leather is made from the skins of cattle that have died a natural death.

For all practical purposes, fur and silk production also necessitate killing the animals. The obvious animal products which do NOT involve killing the animal are milk, eggs and wool. However, almost without exception, dairy cattle, laying hens and wool-bearing animals are slaughtered at the end of their productive lives and pass into the food chain.

What is cantharidin?

Cantharidin (C10H12O4) is the lactose of cantharidic acid and the active constituent of cantharides - dried Spanish flies "Lytta vesicatoria". It has been used as an aphrodisiac and was formerly used as a counter-irritant in plaster form and in small quantities in hair lotions, but is liable to cause nephritis (kidney disease of toxic origin). - from Butterworth's Medical Dictionary.

Is 'gum base' in chewing gum vegan?

Most chewing gums innocuously list "gum base" as one of their ingredients, masking the fact that petroleum, lanolin, glycerin, polyethylene, polyvinyl acetate, petroleum wax, stearic acid, and latex (a possible allergen) may be among the components.
Because of standards of identity for items such as gum base and flavoring, manufacturers are not required to list everything in their product.
According to Dertoline, a French chemical manufacturer, their adhesive "dercolytes" are used as a label and tape adhesive, as well as a chewing gum base.
Many brands also list glycerin and glycerol as ingredients on the label.
Both of them can be animal derived.

What is BHT, as found in prepared frozen foods, and most cereals used as a preservative?

BHT is Butylated Hydroxytoluene.
BHT is a preservative and antioxidant used as a chewing gum base for potato and sweet potato flakes and dry breakfast cereals.
Also, an emulsion stabilizer for shortenings in enriched rice, animal fats, and shortenings containing animal fats.
Also used to retard rancidity in frozen pork sausage and freeze-dried meats. Shown to cause offspring that have abnormal behavior patterns secondary to chemical changes in the brain (study in mice). BHT and BHA are chemically similar, but BHT may be more nephrotoxic (toxic to the kidneys). Prohibited in England, and under investigation in the US for "safe" amount. The FDA has an up-to-date databank called "PAFA" which may be online and will probably yield more up-to-date information.

Are cashew oils bad for you?

Most nut oils are healthy choices (although eating nuts is even better!). While many other oils are mainly polyunsaturated fats, olive oil and nut oils (except walnut oil) are mainly monounsaturated fats, and cashew oil is no exception. If the oil is not refined, many of the beneficial components will remain in the oil (i.e.. plant sterols, vitamin E, etc.)

Cashews are somewhat higher in saturated fat than many other nuts (20 percent sat fat as compare to 10 percent for almonds, 7 percent for hazelnuts and 6 percent for walnuts). This may be viewed as an advantage in terms of stability of the oil, however, it may be preferable to use other nut oils if keeping saturated fat to a minimum is a priority for you.

Are emulsifiers, enzymes, and stablisers animal derived ingredients?

Emulsifiers can be animal and enzymes can be animal (as well as plant). Enzymes can be also bacterial and fungal. I've never heard of stablisers. If a product specifically says that it's enzymes or emulsifiers (or glycerides or natural flavors or stearic acids or...) are not derived from animal products, than you are in the clear. However, most likely the product will not list that it is derived from animals. My rules of thumb are* - if a brand specifies that an ingredient is not animal derived, than it is ok - if that same brand lists the same ingredient for a different product and does not specify that it is not animal derived, than it probably is - and if a brand never specifies that an ingredient is not animal derived, than it's 50/50 (more like 20/80 because I would personally bet from my consumer experience that most ingredients that may come from an animal do come from an animal).

Which ingredients in sweets should you avoid?

Two ingredients that may or may not be animal derived are glycerides (mono - diglycerides) and Natural Flavors. Mono and Diglycerides are popular in most foods that you buy, and I think that they are actually emulsifiers. They may be plant or animal derived. Here is the definition of Natural Flavors according to Title 21, Section 101, part 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations - "The term natural flavor or natural flavoring means the essential oil, oleoresin, essence or extractive, protein hydrolysate, distillate, or any product of roasting, heating or enzymolysis, which contains the flavoring constituents derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof, whose significant function in food is flavoring rather than nutritional."

What are mono and di-glycerides?

Triglycerides make up about 95% of dietary lipids (fats). A molecule of triglyceride is formed when a molecule of glycerol (a 3-carbon alcohol) combines with 3 fatty acid molecules. Occasionally only one or two fatty acids combine with a glycerol molecule to form monoglycerides and diglycerides respectively.
Mono- and diglycerides are esters of edible fat-forming acids usually of the sweet alcohol glycerin. These chemicals are made synthetically for the primary purpose as an emulsifier in oleomargarine. Also used in bakery products to maintain "softeness", in beverages, ice cream, ices, ice milk, milk, chewing gum bvase, shortening, lard, confections, sweet chocolate chocolate, rendered animal fat, and whipped toppings. Also being studied for possible cancer-causing effects.

What is lipase and tallow?

lipase - the enzyme which breaks down all fats (or "lipids," hence "lipase").
tallow - usually what chips, potato cakes, hash browns are soaked in before being packaged and sold, its a type of fat, usually its beef tallow.

What is TVP?

Textured Vegetable Protein (or TVP) is a meat-like substance that is used to boost the nutritional content of meals, while still remaining relatively attractive-tasting. TVP usually contains "defatted" soya flour, and is very low fat.
It is quite often sold in mixes for meat substitute dishes, and can often be found in bulk bins in health food stores. It is sold in a dehydrated form and requires re-hydration before using. TVP may have a rather high fat content, so check the label. If it contains "defatted" soya flour, it should be low fat.

Is all lysine animal derived?

I have a bottle from a company who mostly makes vegetarian vitamins although they have no intrest in being a strictly vegan company, the salesperson claims that most of their products are plant derived even glutamine and other amino acids.
I hear that a lack of lysine under times of stress can cause coldsore outbreaks which I suffer from time to time, also I am a heavy weight trainer and glutimime is supposed to support the immune system under times of great stress.
If anyone knows of alternatives or a company who sells these two amino acids and are postive that they are vegan please let me know, also one more thought, is it possible that a vegan who is an athlete may suffer from lack of these nutrients?

Do the omega 3 fats in linseeds become oxidised when linseeds are used in baking, such as in bread?

Here has been considerable controversy about the stability of flaxseed due to the high content of highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. Flaxseed appears more stable than would be expected considering its n-3 content. Ratnayake showed no deterioration after 44 weeks of storage at room temp. However, it is suggested that flax seed be stored in the refrigerator or freezer for maximum protection.
Ratnakye also showed that there was no significant effect on n-3 content or POV (peroxide value) after an hour of cooking at 350 degrees F. for either whole or ground seeds. Cunnane et al had similar results. The bottom line is that baking at moderate temperatures appears safe for both ground and whole flax seed.

What's wrong with free range eggs?

In order to get laying hens you have to have fertile eggs and half the eggs will hatch into *male* chicks. These are killed at once or raised as table birds (usually these days in broiler houses) and slaughtered as soon as they reach an economic weight. So for every free-range hen happily scratching around the garden or farm who, if she were able to bargain, might pay rent with her daily infertile egg, a corresponding male from her batch is enduring life in a broiler house or has already been subjected to slaughter or thrown away to die. Every year in Britain alone more than 35 million day-old male chicks are killed. They are mainly used for fertiliser or dumped in landfill sites. The hens are also culled as soon as their production drops. Also be aware that many sites classed as free range aren't really free range, they're just massive barns with access to the outside. Since the food and light are inside the chickens rarely venture outside.

and normal (battery) eggs?

The battery hen, from which the vast majority of all eggs are produced and almost all products containing eggs (especially cakes) suffers an even worse fate. The battery hen is an anxious, frustrated, fear-ridden bird forced to spend 10 to 12 months squeezed inside a small wire cage with up to nine other tormented hens. There are usually many tiers of these cages in gloomy sheds which hold a total of 50,000 to 125,000 birds. Caged for life without exercise while constantly drained of calcium to form egg shells, battery hens develop the severe osteoporosis of intensive confinement know as caged layer fatigue. Calcium depleted, millions of hens become paralyzed and die of hunger and thirst inches from their food and water. Battery hens are debeaked with a hot machine blade once and often twice during their lives, typically at one day old and again at seven weeks old, because a young beak will often grow back. Debeaking causes severe, chronic pain and suffering which researchers compare to human phantom limb and stump pain. Between the horn and bone of the beak is a thick layer of highly sensitive tissue. The hot blade cuts through this sensitive tissue impairing the hen's ability to eat, drink, wipe her beak, and preen normally. Debeaking is done to offset the effects of the compulsive pecking that can afflict birds designed by nature to roam, scratch, and peck at the ground all day, not sit in prison; and to save feed costs and promote conversion of less food into more eggs. Debeaked birds have impaired grasping ability and are in pain and distress, therefore eating less, flinging their food less, and "wasting" less energy than intact birds.

What can be substituted for eggs?

A company called Ener-G makes a powdered egg-substitute that they claim is a suitable replacement for eggs in cooking. It costs about $5.00 (U.S.) for the equivalent of 9 or 10 dozen eggs, and it contains no animal products. It is make from potato starch, tapioca flour, leavening agents (calcium lactate (vegan), calcium carbonate, and citric acid) and a gum derived from cottonseed. It's primarily intended to replace the leavening/binding characteristics of eggs in baking, but it can be used for nonbaked foods and quiches.

Alternative replacements (quantity per egg substituted for) 2 oz of soft tofu can be blended with some water and substituted for an egg to add consistency. Or try the same quantity of: mashed beans, mashed potatoes, or nut butters.

1/2 mashed banana

1/4 cup applesauce or pureed fruit

One Tbsp flax seeds (found in natural food stores) with 3 Tbsp water can be blended for 2 to 3 minutes, or boiled for 10 minutes or until desired consistency is achieved to substitute for one egg.

1 tsp. soy flour plus 1 Tbsp. water to substitute for one egg.

Are soy/soya cheeses vegan?

Some soy (US spelling)/soya (British spelling) hard cheeses contain casein which is a milk-product. Just because something is "lactose free" doesn't mean it's dairy free. The only true VEGAN hard cheeses in the U.S. are SOYMAGE and VEGAN RELLA. In the U.K. there are vegan hard cheeses called SCHEESE and TOFUCHEESE. There is also a vegan pre-grated parmesan style cheese called PARMAZANO in the U.K.

"King Land" soya cheese is made in Australia, and is available in four flavours. Address; King International Pty Ltd, 606 Boundary Rd, Archerfield QLD 4108. Ph. (07) 3277 7899

What is rennet? Where is it found? How can it be avoided??

Rennet is derived from the stomach linings of calves. Rennet is used to make cheese. True VEGETARIAN cheeses do not have rennet in them, but a substitute. These substitutes can be either from vegetable sources, or may be created in a lab. Vegetable rennet is usually called 'rennin' to distinguish it from the animal-derived type. ** NOTE ABOUT SOY CHEESE: Some soy cheeses contain cassein which is a milk-product. The only true VEGAN cheeses in the U.S. are: SOYMAGE and VEGAN RELLA. In the U.K. there is also a vegan cheese: SCHEESE.

Are any non-dairy cheeses/ice cream available?

from a reader in the UK
Re non-dairy cheeses in the UK -- an amazing vegan cheese is Cheezly, made by Redwood Foods; it's virtually identical to cheddar cheese! This company also makes sandwich slices (chicken, ham, roast beef etc) and the most incredible 'roasts' - turkey and beef.
In the UK also non-dairy ice cream: Swedish Glace is great, available at the Holland & Barrett chain of health food stores.

from a reader in the USA:
In the U.S. (TX) there are several varieties of non-dairy ice creams, some people swear by Rice Dream (tastes kind of thin and odd to me.) My personal favorite is Tofutti. Comes in rich flavors, and Tofutti Cuties.(mini tofutti sandwiches like ice cream sandwiches)

from a reader in Canada:

In terms of cheese, soy cheese tends to be a rough gamble. I've found that many taste absolutely horrible and you're better off with no cheese at all! Do keep trying, though, and let me know if you find anything good!
Ice creams are easier. Many soy alternatives are available. I've found that although they taste OK, they are rather icy and do not have much of a consistency whatsoever. Soy Delicious makes a good chocolate soy dessert (I believe it's called Chocolate Velvet) I assume these will be found in the United States as well as Canada. Good luck!

Is there a council or advisory board to have a food product certified as vegan for retail sales?

froma reader in the UK:
In the UK, The Vegan Society award their sunflower symbol to selected manufacturers of foods and other items which are suitable for vegans. The Vegetarian Society's seedling symbol fulfils a similar role for vegetarian-suitable products.

What's wrong with dairy products?

Dairy cows are made pregnant yearly to ensure they produce adequate milk. In nature the calf would suckle for almost a year but nature, like the calf, is denied by the dairy industry. Some calves may be separated from their dams on the first day of life; others might remain for just a few days. But as the inevitable by-products of relentless milk production each will have to endure one of several possible fates. The least healthy bobby calves will be sent to market to be slaughtered for pet food; to provide veal for veal & ham pies; or for rennet to be extracted from their stomachs for cheesemaking. Some females will be reared on milk substitutes to become dairy herd replacements and begin, at 18-24 months of age, the cycle of continual pregnancies. Some will be sold at market at 1-2 weeks of age for rearing as beef in fattening pens and slaughtered after 11 months, often without sight of pasture.

Up to 80% of the beef produced in the UK is a by-product of the dairy industry. Over 170,000 calves die in the UK each year before they are three months old, due largely to neglectful husbandry and appalling treatment at markets. A few will be selected for rearing as bulls, spending their lives in solitary confinement serving canvas 'cows' and rubber tubes. Artificial insemination is now responsible for 65-75% of all conceptions in the dairy herd. In the US the vast majority of unwanted calves are reared for veal, all but around 12% of them spending their short miserable lives in narrow crates (5'x2') on wooden slats and without straw. Whilst none suffer such a fate in Britain they are now exported for the purpose. In solitary confinement, unable to turn around or groom themselves they must drink the only diet they are allowed - a milk substitute gruel. Deliberately kept short of the iron and fibre which would redden their fashionably white flesh, they will suffer from sub-clinical anaemia and gnaw at the crates and their own hair for the roughage they crave. Fed large doses of hormones and antibiotics to promote growth and prevent the onset of infections caused by the stress of confinement and malnutrition, they will suffer scours, pneumonia, diarrhoea, vitamin deficiency, ringworm, ulcers or septicaemia. After 14 weeks, barely able to walk, they are taken over long distances to slaughter.

In 1905 the Lord Mayor's Cup at the London Dairy Show was won by a 24 year old cow. Today it is impossible to find a dairy cow of that age. The cow is usually sent for slaughter at five to six years, less than one quarter of their expected lifespan. Ketosis, laminitis, rumen acidosis, bse, mastitis, milk fever, staggers, liverfluke, lungworm and pneumonia are just some of the diseases facing the short life of the dairy cow.

But don't I need eggs and dairy products?

Just as the meat manufacturers would have you believe that you need to eat meat, the egg and dairy producers are now spending vast amounts of money promoting the healthy aspects of eggs and dairy products. Eggs and dairy products contain large amounts of cholesterol and saturated fats, which is considered a major cause of heart disease. In a 1985 study published by the J. Am. Med. Ass. dairy products were the major source of saturated fat and cholesterol for 75 adult vegetarians living in the USA, whose blood levels of cholesterol were higher than those of vegans who ate no dairy produce. Dairy products contain lactose, a milk sugar which the majority of the world's population is actually unable to digest and is often found to be the cause of digestive problems. Casein, the milk protein, has been shown to cause iron deficiency anaemia from internal bleeding in many infants and is suspected of causing juvenile diabetes. Milk products can also be a cause of eczema, rash, mucous buildup, wheezing, asthma, rhinitis, bleeding, pneumonia and anaphylaxis in children and adults.

Tuesday, March 25, 2008

Bukan Tempat Makan Minum Orang Islam

Mana-mana restoran/kedai makan yang tidak memenuhi syarat-syarat berikut:

  1. Pemilik orang Islam

  2. Pengurus orang Islam

  3. Pekerja orang Islam

Pada lazimnya akan dilabel dengan "Bukan Tempat Makan Minum Orang Islam."

Persoalannya: Bagaimana kedudukan syarikat/restoran/kedai makan yang pemilik sahamnya terbanyak dipunyai oleh orang Islam?


h_mj16.jpg (34228 bytes)

Dalam sistem perniagaan masa kini, pemilik syarikat, restoran, kedai makan atau pemegang sahamnya yang terbanyak, belumlah tentu mereka itu sendiri yang terjun secara langsung menangani pengurusan syarikat, restoran atau kedai makan itu. Bahkan ada di antara para pemegang saham yang kurang tahu-menahu tentang perjalanan syarikat. Yang paling utama baginya hanyalah pulangan atau keuntungan sahaja.

Selain itu ada juga yang berurusan atau berkongsi dengan orang lain, seperti dengan orang bukan Islam.

Jadi, pemilikan orang-orang Islam terhadap sesebuah syarikat, restoran atau kedai makan jika hanya ditinjau daripada segi hak milik sahaja, belumlah boleh menjamin kehalalan makanan yang dihidang atau diproduksi itu. Pada hakikatnya kehalalan makanan bukanlah semata-mata berdasarkan kepada siapa pemilik restoran, malahan dasar utamanya ialah bertolak daripada bahan makanan yang dihidang itu sendiri, misalnya jika yang dihidang sate daging maka wajiblah daging itu berasal daripada binatang halal yang disembelih mengikut syara'. Kemudian adakah ia bercampur dengan bahan-bahan yang syubhah, seperti minyak binatang atau bahan-bahan najis?

Jika ianya jelas berasal daripada binatang halal, disembelih mengikut syara' dan tidak bercampur dengan yang syubhah atau najis, maka hidangan di syarikat, restoran atau kedai makan itu adalah halal.

Akan tetapi jika ianya masih diragukan, apalagi diyakini tidak berasal daripada binatang halal, tidak disembelih atau bercampur dengan yang syubhah atau najis, seperti dimasak di tempat memasak babi atau dalam bekas yang najis, maka hidangan atau sajian di syarikat, restoran atau kedai makan itu adalah haram.

Jika pemilik dan pengurus sepenuhnya orang Islam, kita adalah disuruh tetap berprasangka baik terhadap sesama saudara seagama kita itu, tidak perlu ragu terhadap makanan dan minuman yang dihidangkannya, kecuali jika jelas dan nyata ada bukti-bukti lain yang makanan dan minuman itu tidak halal atau syubhah.

Jika pemilik dan pengurus sepenuhnya bukan orang Islam, maka ini sudah jelas makanan dan minuman yang dihidang itu boleh menjadi haram atau syubhah kerana orang bukan Islam itu tidak mengerti dan tidak mengenali apa itu halal atau haram dalam Islam.

Manakala jika pemilikan dan pengurusan itu dikongsi sama oleh orang Islam dan bukan Islam, maka makanan hidangannya juga boleh membawa kepada syubhah atau haram kerana dalam perkara ini timbullah kesamaran dan ketidak pastian akibat percampuran dan perkongsian itu, memandangkan bahawa kedua-dua pihak adalah sama-sama berkuasa dan berpengaruh ke atasnya.

Orang Islam tahu dan kenal apa itu halal dan haram, sedangkan orang bukan Islam pula sebaliknya. Orang Islam percaya dan sangat tamak kepada pahala daripada Allah, sedangkan orang bukan Islam tidak percaya dan tidak timbul sama sekali untuk mendapatkan pahala itu. Orang Islam, jika melanggar hukum Allah akan takut rugi serta takut akan diazab di akhirat, sedangkan orang bukan Islam tidak merasakan apa-apa. Tetapi kedua-duanya itu sama-sama berkuasa dan berpengaruh ke atas syarikat-syarikat, restoran-restoran atau kedai-kedai makan itu. Yang satu pihak masih terikat dengan hukum halal haram dan masih ingatkan janji Allah mengenai dengan Hari Akhirat atau kehidupan di akhirat, sementara yang satu lagi tidak merasa terikat dengan hukuman halal haram dan bahkan tidak terlintas atau terdetik walau sebesar habuk sekalipun mengenai kehidupan yang sedang menunggunya di akhirat itu.

Namun daripada segi pengaruh, kuasa dan peluang mereka tidaklah berbeza.

Ibarat dua nakhoda bagi sebuah kapal, masing-masing sama mahir dan sama-sama ada tauliah serta sama-sama ada budi bicara, peluang dan kuasa. Tidak diragukan kedua-duanya itu sama-sama mampu melakukan peranan masing-masing. Mereka tidak sunyi daripada mempunyai peluang, kuasa dan pengaruh untuk itu. Maka begitulah pula halnya dengan keadaan dua pemilik dan pengurus tadi, masing-masingnya mempunyai peluang, pengaruh dan kuasa untuk membawa ke mana jua syarikat, restoran atau kedai makan yang dikongsi itu mengikut cita rasa masing-masing. Pendeknya kerana kuasa dan pengaruh yang sama, mereka sama-sama pula mempunyai kesempatan untuk memenuhi cita rasa masing-masing, walaupun apa yang dilakukan oleh satu pihak itu tidak disukai oleh pihak yang lain.

Inilah hakikat yang ada, bahawa pengaruh dan kuasa itu adalah perkara yang paling menentukan.

Dalam pengertian lain, jika pemilik dan pengurus Islam, dengan kuasa dan pengaruh yang ada padanya sebagai pemilik dan pengurus boleh membawa dan memasukkan benda-benda yang baik atau halal, mengapa pula rakan kongsi milik dan pengurus yang bukan Islam yang juga sama-sama mempunyai kuasa dan pengaruh yang sama tidak boleh membawa dan memasukkan benda-benda yang haram dan najis? Yakni semua itu boleh dan harus sahaja berlaku tertakluk kepada adanya peluang-peluang bagi kedua belah pihak itu.

Jadi dalam kedudukan ini, semua perkara menjadi 'bermasuk-masukan', tiada siapa yang dapat menjamin boleh menentukannya dengan tepat sama ada halal atau haram, yakni halal dan haram itu boleh sahaja bercampur-campur, baik dengan disengaja ataupun tidak, disedari ataupun tidak disedari.

Maka apabila keadaan begini wujud, kaedah syara' pun menetapkan, sebagaimana dalam al-Asybah wa an-Naza'r oleh al-Imam as-Suyuthi begini:

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Ertinya: "Apabila berhimpun yang halal dan yang haram, maka lebih kuat atau lebih mengatasilah yang haram."

As-Suyuthi telah memberikan banyak contoh, antaranya:

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Ertinya: "Dan jikalau berlaku kesamaran binatang yang disembelih dengan bangkai binatang atau susu Lembu dengan susu keldai atau air dengan air kencing, maka tidaklah harus (tidak halal) mempergunakannya walaupun sedikit."

Mengenai hukum kesamaran ini Baginda Sallallahu 'alaihi wasallam telahpun menjelaskannya dalam hadis-hadis Baginda:

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Maksudnya: "Tinggallah perkara-perkara yang membawa ragu-ragu kepadamu, (dan) ambillah apa-apa yang tidak meragukanmu."

(Hadis riwayat Nasa'i dan lain-lain)

Sabda Baginda lagi:

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Maksudnya: "Sesungguhnya yang halal itu jelas dan yang haram juga jelas (terang) dan di antara keduanya terdapat perkara-perkara yang kesamaran, yang tidak diketahui oleh kebanyakkan manusia, maka sesiapa memelihara (dirinya daripada) segala yang kesamaran, sesungguhnya dia telah memelihara bagi agamanya dan kehormatannya. Dan sesiapa yang jatuh ke dalam perkara kesamaran, jatuhlah dia ke dalam yang haram. Seperti seorang pengembala yang mengembala di sekeliling kawasan larangan, hampir sangat (ternakannya) makan di dalamnya. Ketahuilah bahawa bagi tiap-tiap raja ada kawasan larangan. Ketahuilah, bahawa larangan Allah ialah segala yang diharamkanNya. Ketahuilah, bahawa di dalam badan itu ada seketul daging, apabila ia baik, baiklah seluruh badan, dan apabila ia rosak, rosaklah semuanya, ketahuilah, itulah dia hati."

(Hadis riwayat Bukhari dan Muslim)

Untuk menetukan sama ada sesebuah syarikat, restoran atau kedai makan itu munasabah atau wajar diletakkan label "Bukan Tempat Makan Minum Orang Islam' akan tertakluk kepada keadaan perkongsian itu, dari segi jumlah pemegang saham dan jumlah nilai saham termasuk kuasa-kuasa yang mereka miliki bagi menentukan pengurusan yang selaras dengan kehendak-kehendak syara'.

Suatu hal yang patut menjadi perhitungan ialah, bahawa sesebuah syarikat pengeluar atau penyedia makanan yang dikongsi sama oleh orang Islam dan bukan Islam mungkin tidak serupa dengan sebuah syarikat yang sama fungsinya tetapi berlainan kuasanya berdasarkan besar atau kecil sesebuah syarikat itu.

Sebuah syarikat pengeluar atau penyedia makanan yang mempunyai pegawai-pegawai khusus yang terdiri daripada orang-orang Islam yang ditugaskan khas untuk mengawal atau mengendalikan kehalalan produk syarikat berkenaan, adalah tidak sama dengan syarikat pengeluar atau penyedia makanan yang tidak mempunyai pegawai-pegawai seperti yang disebutkan.

Jadi, keadaan sesebuah syarikat makanan serta cara-cara pengendalian dan juga kuasa-kuasanya akan turut menentukan sama ada wajar ditanda 'Bukan Tempat Makan Minum Orang Islam' atau sebaliknya.

Keadaan yang sama dilihat juga kepada restoran atau kedai makan, sama ada patut ditanda atau dilabel dengan label berkenaan itu, adalah akan turut bergantung kepada bagaimana bentuk dan syarat-syarat perkongsian di antara orang-orang Islam dengan orang-orang bukan Islam itu.

Oleh itu, semua persoalan ini hendaklah dilihat berdasarkan 'kes' demi 'kes' dengan menyediakn garis panduan mengapa ianya dilabelkan 'Bukan Tempat Makan Minum Orang Islam' atau sebaliknya adalah berdasarkan persyaratan-persyaratan mengikut hukum syara'. Jaminan atau ikrar oleh pemegang-pemegang saham Islam akan kehalalan sesuatu produk syarikatnya dapatlah dilihat sebagai sesuatu perkara yang positif.

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