Saturday, May 24, 2008

List of Ingredients

Each entry has entry name, E-number, halal status, and a short description, all separated by a dash (-). Not all entry has an E-number. Halal status is a collection from the sources, including the vegetarian websites. This halal status must be used as an information only, and must not regarded as a fatwa.

100% vegetable shortening--Halal-Source of this kind of shortening is plant.

Adipic Acid-355-Halal-Pertaining or belonging to fat, prepared naturally from beet juice or synthetically. Used in baking powders instead of tartar and phosphates because it is not hygroscopic (moisture absorbent). Natural adipic acid is better for health in the long run.

Agar-406-Halal-Also known as agar-agar, derived from seaweed. Used in food as gelling agent. Considered a mild laxative. Agar can be used to prepare jello or jelly similar to the ones prepared from collagen which is derived from animals. Islamically, agar is far better than collagen.

Alanine --Questionable-A crystalline water-soluble non-essential amino acid. Can be found in plants, and can also be produced by humans and animals. C3H7NO2

Albumen --NonVeg (Halal)-The protein component of egg white, which includes albumin. Derived from eggs, probably battery;

Albumin --NonVeg (Halal)-A water-soluble protein coagulated by heat, found in many animal and plant tissues, especially egg white, blood plasma, and milk.

Alcohol (alcohol beverages) --Haram-To cut a long story short, all sorts of alcohol beverages are strictly not permissible for consumption. It makes no difference whether it is a lot (e.g. a glass of beer) or a bit (aroma in bakery products that comes from alcoholic beverages). Please refer to a thorough discussion on this matter between two halal auditors. It is a bit long discussion, but certainly clears many doubts. There is an introduction in Malay, and some sentences here and there, but in general, you can follow the English discussion without loosing the basic arguments. Here is the discussion on alcohol.

Ambergris--NonVeg (Halal)-Valuable wax secreted in the intestines of sperm whales

Amylose--Halal-The straight chain form of starch which is soluble in water. Of plant origin.

Anatto Extracts-160b-Vegetarian (Halal)-Yellowish red dye made from the pulp enclosing the seeds of a small tropical tree, used to color fabric and food products

Anchovies--NonVeg (Halal)-Small fish, found on pizzas and in some brands of worcester sauce.

Animal Fat --NonVeg-Carcass fat not milk fat.

Animal Shortening--Haram-Fats and oils of animal origin. See Shortening

Animal Tissue Extract--Haram-If no indication on specific halal source.

Antioxidants--Halal-Chemical compounds used to protect certain food components from being destroyed or lost through oxidation.

Artificial colour--Halal-Adds colour

Artificial Flavors--Halal-only if made from Halal ingredients only

Ascorbic acid-300-Halal-Vitamin C, stabilizer, colour preservative

Aspartame-951-Halal-Vegetarian-artificial sweetening substance

Aspartic-Acid--Questionable-DL & L Forms; Aminosuccinate Acid

Aspic Savoury --Questionable-jelly derived from meat or fish.

Bacon--Haram-A side of pig meat (pork).

Beer --Haram-All cask conditioned "real" ales will have been fined with isinglass, and some keg, bottled and canned bitters, milds and stouts also. Lagers are generally chill filtered, but some brands may use isinglass on occasion (see also Beer from the Alcohol Info Sheet).

Benzoate, Benzoic acid, Benzoate of soda--Halal-Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate are used for food preservation.

Beta-Carotene-106a-Questionable-Provitamin A; Halal status depends on the carrier. Pork gelatin may be used for the carrier, in which case it becomes haram.

BHA Butylated hydroxyanisole-320-Halal-Chemical preservative, antioxidant

BHT Butylated hydroxyanisole-321-Halal-Chemical preservative, antioxidant. Halal if the carrier is halal

Bile Salts--Questionable-Bile is the yellowish brown or green liquid secreted by the liver. Food industry uses bile salts whenever there is fat to be emulsified so that it can be easily digested and hydrolysed. Since the origin of bile salts is animal, one has, therefore, to find out the type of animal used. If the source is pork, then, definitely, it becomes Haram.

Biotin -- Vitamin H; Vitamin B Factor--Questionable (Halal)-A vitamin in the B complex that is found in egg yolk, cereals, milk, and liver and is used by the body in metabolizing fat and carbohydrates. Deficiency can lead to dermatitis, loss of appetite, hair loss, and anemia.

Biscuits --Questionable-Quite likely to contain animal fats.

Bleaching Agents---Chemical process, through oxidation, which results in whitening. Most of the flour we use today are bleached, hence the exceptionally white appearance. Nutritionally, it is better to use brown flour. This also applies to bread.

Bone --Questionable-Used in bone china and cutlery handles.

Bran--Halal-A substance that forms outer layers of grains obtained as a by-product of wet milling. Bran contains high amounts of cellulose or fibre. Important to health, it increases peristaltic movement, improves defecation and reduces cancer of the colon.

Breakfast cereals --Questionable-Often fortified with vitamin D3.

Burow's Solution --Questionable-Aluminium Acetate, see Aluminium salt

Butter --Halal-Solidified milk fat, especially cow's milk, used principally as a food item. Pure butter is suitable for vegetarians.

Butyric Acid--Halal-A short chain fatty acid found in milk.

Calcium carrageenan--Halal (plant)-Thickener, gelling agent, improves body & mouth feel

Calcium cyclamate-952-Vegetarian-artificial sweetening substance

Calcium disodium EDTA--Halal-Sequestrant, stabilizer

Calcium saccharin-954-Halal-artificial sweetening substance

Calcium stearoyl lactylate-482-Questionable-Whipping agent, emulsifier

Capsules -Haram--Usually made from gelatine, vegetarian alternatives are Halal coming onto the market.

Carrageenan-407-Halal (Plant)-A complex carbohydrate obtained from edible red seaweeds, especially the seaweed Irish moss, used in the commercial preparation of several kinds of food and drink; Gelling agent, emulsifier, thickener, stabilizer, suspending agent

Casein --NonVeg, Halal-This is a product made when milk is heated with an acid, like lactic acid.

Caseinate (Sodium & Calcium)--Questionable-Casein mixed with a metal, like calcium caseinate or sodium caseinate

Cashmere ---Animal derived clothing material.

Caviar --NonVeg (Halal)-Fish eggs. The fish must be killed to obtain the eggs.

Cellulose gum--Halal-Stabilizer, solubility

Cheese --Haram-Likely to have been produced using animal rennet. Halal if vegetarian rennet is used (either microbial or synthetic)

Chelate (Chelation)--Questionable-A complex chemical compound formed through the process of chelation. Its source could either be of plants or animals.

Chewing gum --Questionable-Often contain glycerine. Wrigleys use a vegetable glycerine.

Chips --Questionable-May have been fried in animal fat.

Chitin --Questionable (Halal)-Produced from crab & shrimp shells.

Chocolate --Questionable-Watch out for whey and emulsifiers, otherwise it is Halal

Chocolate Liquor--Halal-A semi-viscous syrup containing chocolate , sugar, and other ingredients. It is used in making candy, drinks and chocolate flavoured foods. It is not liquor or alcohol, but because it is liquid, it is called liquor. (?

Cholesterol--Haram-A type of fat always of animal origin. If extracted from a dhabiha animal, it is halal.

Citric acid-330-Halal-Sources are plant, usually of the citrus family. (e.g. orange, lime, lemon).

CMC (Carboxymethyl cellulose)-466-Halal-Stabilizer, prevents syneresis, retains moisture

Cobalamine--Halal-Synthetically prepared Vitamin B12.

Cochineal -120-NonVeg (Halal)-CI 75470 -- Colouring, made from crushed insects.

Cocoa Butter--Halal-A yellowish white waxy fat or oil obtained from cocoa seeds and used in pharmaceuticals, candies and confections. Of plant source.

Corn starch--Halal-Anti-caking agent, thickener

Cream of Tartar--Halal-A white crystalline chemical called potassium bitartrate; used in baking powder and as a component of laxatives. Watch out for alcohol-based source.

Crisps ---Often use whey as a flavour carrier, ready salted are the only clearly vegetarian flavour, though some beef crisps are flavoured with yeast extract and are therefore suitable.

Cyclamic acid-952-Vegetarian-artificial sweetening substance

Dextrose--Halal-Also used as a flavouring in the food industry, it is the result of hydrolysis of starch. Other names for dextrose include corn sugar, dextroglucose, fruit sugar and glucose.

Diglyceride--Haram-Emulsifier. If of animal origin it should be suspected till the source is known.

Dimethylpolysiloxane-900-Vegetarian-emulsifier, antifoaming agent, anti- caking agent

Dipotassium phosphate--Halal-Emulsifier, stabilizer

Disaccharide--Halal-The sources are mainly plants.

Disodium Guanilate / Disodium Inosinate--Questionable-Nitrogen chemical compounds derived from genetic material (DNA & RNA), used as enhancers of meat-like flavours.

Dry Artificial Colors--Halal-if not extracted with alcohol

E-Carotene (colouring) (alpha, beta, gamma)-160a-Questionable-Glycerince may be used as the carrier. If Halal carrier is used, it is Halal.

Edible Fats --Questionable-Can mean animal fats.

Egg --NonVeg (Halal)-Some vegetarians may wish to avoid battery eggs and/or barn eggs. The Vegetarian Society does not award its V symbol to any products containing eggs other than free range.

Elastin --NonVeg-A fibrous protein resembling collagen that is the main constituent of the elastic fibers of connective tissue

Emulsifiers --Questionable-May not be vegetarian.

Enzyme--Halal-Alpha Amylase and Protease in bakery products

Enzyme --Questionable-A protein substance produced in living cells, that influences a chemical reaction within a plant or animal without being changed itself; an organic catalyst. Enzymes help break down food so that it can be digested. Pepsin is an enzyme.

Enzyme-treated starches-1405-Questionable-thickener, vegetable gum, the enzyme is questionable

Erythorbic acid-317-Halal-Chemical preservative

Estradiol --NonVeg-An estrogenic hormone produced in the ovaries and synthesized for use in treating estrogen deficiency and breast cancer. C18H24O2

Estrogen --NonVeg-Any of several steroid hormones, produced mainly in the ovaries, that stimulate estrus and the development of female secondary sexual characteristics.

Estrone --NonVeg-An estrogenic hormone produced in the ovaries and synthesized for use in treating estrogen deficiency and breast cancer. C18H22O2

Ethanol---See Alcohol

Ethyl Alcohol---See Alcohol

Ethylene Oxide--Questionable-A fumigant gas used as a sterilant against insects and micro-organisms in dry foods that do not contain salt. When reacted with salt, chlorohydrins are produced. They are considered cancer causing agents.

Farina--Halal-A granular flour or meal made from cereal grains, especially whole wheat.

Fast Food --Questionable-Watch out for Bean/Vegetable burgers being cooked with fish/chicken/meat products.

Fatty Acids --Questionable-May be of animal or vegetable origin.

Felt ---Made from wool or fur.

Fiber--Halal-Sources are plant. Provide roughage to diet.

Folic Acid --Questionable-Could be from pork liver used in vitamins, or from plant

Food yeast--Halal-Microscopic, unicellular, fungal plant used for fermentation process and in baking bread.

Fructose--Halal-A fruit sugar that is also called levulose. It is used in many food products and in pharmaceutics. Fructose is recommended as a sweetener especially for those who wish to reduce weight.

Fumaric acid-297-Halal-Tartness, flavouring agent

Galactose--Halal-A single sugar derived from the hydrolysis of milk sugar, lactose.

Gelatine or Gelatin or Jello Gelatine-441-Questionable-A product obtained (by boiling in water) from the partial hydrolysis of collagen derived from cartilage, bones, tendons and skin in animals. Vegetable gelatine is similar to animal gelatine in its function and is obtained from gluten of wheat or other cereals. Fish gelatine alsa exists. Concerned Muslims should find out the source of gelatine used. Alternatives such as Agar Agar, Carrageen and Gelozone exist.

Gin--Haram-A strong colorless alcoholic drink distilled from grain and flavored with juniper berries

Gliadin (Gluten)--Halal-Ptotein found in wheat and rye.

Glucose---A syrup containing dextrose, maltose, dextrin, and water that is obtained from starch and used in food manufacture and in alcoholic fermentation

Glycerine or Glycerol -422-Questionable-Humectant, may be produced from animal fats, synthesised from propylene or from fermentation of sugars. Halal if the source is synthetic or plant.

Glycerol monostearate--Questionable-Moistness, emulsifier

Glycine-640-Questionable (Halal)-Sweetener, flavour enhancer

Glycogen--NonVeg-It is an animal starch composed of glucose units.

Gravy Vegetarian ---Gravy mixes are available. Be careful in restaurants.

Guar gum-412-Halal-Stabilizer, thickening agent

Gum arabic-414-Halal-Emulsifier, thickening, adhesive

Gum tragacanth-413-Questionable-Thickener, binder, stabilizer

Ham--Haram-Meat cut from the thigh of the hind leg of a hog after curing by salting or smoking

Hemi Cellulose--Halal-A complex carbohydrate similar to cellulose. Sourced from plants.

Histamine--Questionable-An amine formed from an amino acid histidine and is found in tissues and blood. Also prepared synthetically.

Honey --NonVeg (Halal)-Avoided by most vegans.

Hormones--Haram-Usually animal hormones are used for human consumption. One has to find out the source before passing a judgement.

Hydrogenated oil--Halal-Vegetable oil being hydrogenated making it solid at room temperature.

Ice Cream --Questionable-Look out for non dairy fats, E numbers, eggs.

Inulin--Halal-Used in bread for diabetics and is obtained from plants.

Iodine--Halal-A nutrient for thyroid gland.

Isinglass --NonVeg (Halal)-A fining agent derived from the swim bladders of certain tropical fish, especially the Chinese sturgeon.

Isopropyl citrate--Halal-Improves & protects flavour

Jelly --Haram-Usually contains gelatine though alternatives are available.

Keratin--NonVeg-An insoluble protein of hair, hooves, nails and feathers. Used for coating pills that are intended to be dissolved only in the intestines. Also used in the production of hydrolyzates.

Lactic Acid-270-Questionable (Halal)-An organic acid formed by the oxidation of sugars in the body or formed by the fermentation of milk and other products.


Lactose--Questionable-The main sugar present in milk. Upon hydrolysis, yields glucose and galactose. Produced from milk, sometimes as a by product of the cheese making process.

Lactostearia--Halal-Emulsifier, inhibits spoilage

Lactylate--Halal-Inhibits spoilage, flavouring agent

Lanolin--NonVeg (Halal)-Also known as wool fat or wool wax, it is used as an ointment base in pharmaceutics and cosmetics. Produced from sheep's wool. Used to make vitamin D3.

Lard--Haram-Fat from swine particulaly found in the abdominal cavity. Totally Haram for us.

L-Cysteine-910-Questionable-Halal if the source is from petroleum or synthetic.

L-Cysteine monohydrochloride-920-NonVeg-flour treatment agent

Lecithin-322-Questionable-Emulsifier of fat. Nearly always produced from soya beans, though can be produced from eggs. In the USA, sources are mainly soyabean and egg yolk, which are halal.

Lipases-1104-Questionable-flavour enchancer, an enzyme produced by the liver, pancreas, or stomach, or by plant seeds, that breaks down fats. Bacterial lipase is Halal.

Lipids--Questionable-Essential fatty acids found in fish, plant and animals. If source is animal; it is suspected.

Lysine--NonVeg (Halal)-Amino acids mainly from from meat, eggs, and milk. Plant sources of amino acids are often weak in lysine and tryptophan. Found in many cereal proteins and used to enrich flour and bread.

Magnesium stearate-470-Questionable-emulsifier, stabiliser, halal if stearate is from plant fat.

Magnesium Stearate (stearic acid)--Questionable-Used as an active ingredient in medicine tablets. Haram when derived from animal source.

Malt--Halal-Grain of one or more varieties of barley, which has been soaked in water, is made to germinate and then dried. However, if malt has been allowed to ferment in water anaerobically(without air), alcohol would be produced. The liquid becomes unlawful

Maltitol and maltitol syrup-965-Vegetarian-humectant, stabiliser

Maltose--Halal-A white crystalline sugar formed by the action of diastases enzyme in malt or starch.


Margarines --Questionable-Originally called oleomargarine and widely used as a substitute for butter. May contain animal fats, fish oils, vitamin D3, E numbers, whey, gelatine.

Marshmallow--Questionable-pork gelatin may be used

Methyl cellulose-461-Halal-Vegetable gum thickener, emulsifier, stabilizer

Methyl silicone--Halal-Better frying, antifoam

Molasses--Halal-Syrup liquid obtained in refining sugar.

Mono- and di-glycerides of fatty acids-471-Questionable-emulsifier, halal if the source is plant.

Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-621-Halal-Used to impart meat flavour as well as other natural food flavours and to improve the taste of tobacco.

Natural Flavoring (or Flavors)--Questionable-May contain animal ingredients.

Niacin-375-Halal-One of the B complex vitamins.

Oleic Acid--Questionable-Fatty acids occurring widely in animal fats and vegetable oils. The best source in plants is olive oil whereas in animals is lard.

Olive Oil --Halal-No problems! Just worth knowing about.

Oxalic Acid--Questionable-An organic compound found in several fruits and vegetables. It reacts with calcium and magnesium in the digestive tract to form an insoluble complex compound which is neither released for absorption nor utilized. Fortunately, most foods do not contain enough of the above to cause harm to the body.

Oxidised polyethylene-914-Vegetarian-Humectant

Oxysterin--Questionable-Inhibits crystallization, release agent

PABA--Halal-A food supplement.

Pasta --Questionable-May contain egg.

Pastry --Questionable-May contain animal fat.

Pectin-440 or 440a-Halal-A gelatinous substance extracted from fruits. Commercial pectin is used in the preparation of jams, jellies and similar food products. Pectin can be used to control diarrhoea.

Pepsin--Haram-A digestive enzyme of gastric juices usually extracted from a pig's stomach. Usually the ingredient is not labelled.

Phenyl Alanine--Questionable-An essential amino acid found in plants, milk and animals.

Phosphates--Halal-Derived from glycerol and fatty acids. May be from animal bones too.

Phospholipids -- Phosphatides --Questionable-A fat containing phosphorus. This includes lecithin.

Phosphoric Acid-338-Halal-An organic compound used as a solvent. This acid is added to some non-alcoholic beverages like Pepsi, Coca-Cola, 7-UP and the like. May ruin the enamel of the teeth. Those with sensitive teeth (like most of us here), may experience discomfort or pain after drinking carbonated drinks with phosphoric acid.


Potassium citrate-332-Halal-Sequestrant

Potassium gluconate-577-Vegetarian-stabiliser

Potassium phosphate -340-Halal-Sequestrant, production of caramel

Propionic acid-280-Vegetarian (Halal)-A preservative.

Propylene glycol-1520-Questionable-Emulsifier agent, solvent. Halal if from petroleum or other halal source.

Pure vegetable shortening--Halal-Source of this kind of shortening is plant.

Quinoline yellow-104-Vegetarian-CI 47005, colouring

Rennet or Rennin--Haram-An enzyme taken from the stomach of a newly killed calf used in the cheese making process. Usually not labelled. Vegetarian cheese is produced using microbial or fungal enzymes.

Riboflavin-101-NonVeg (Halal)-One of the B complex vitamins. Usually the source is synthetic.

Roe --Halal-Fish eggs, see caviar.

Rum--Haram-An alcoholic liquor made from sugar cane or molasses. It can be clear but is usually colored brownish-red by storage in oak casks or by the addition of caramel

Saccharine-954-Halal (discouraged for health reasons)-An artificial sweetener about 500 times sweeter than table sugar. It has no caloric value. Saccharin, as a sweetener, produces a bitter taste for some individuals. It is ideal for those who want to cut down on caloric intakes. Ironically, saccharine has been found to cause bladder cancer in rats. This sweetener has been recently taken off the food industry's 'black list'. Officially, it is safe but it is still considered by many as detrimental to health.

Shellac-904-NonVeg (Halal)-Glazing agent, secreted under tree bark by insects. To be treated in a similar way to Honey.

Shortening--Haram-Denotes any oil or fat. The sources of oils are mainly plants while fats are mainly from animals. If the word shortening is listed on the label of a product, it would be difficult to know whether oil or fat has been used. Vegetable shortening may contain 80-90% vegetable oil and 10-20% animal fats. On labels, this may only be reflected as ' vegetable oil'. To be sure, look for 100% vegetable oil or pure vegetable shortening. Bakeries and food industries themselves may not be able to verify the presence or absence of lard in shortenings as this varies from one batch to another depending on the availability and costs.

Soap ---Many soaps are not vegetarian since they use animal fats and/or glycerine. Vegetable oil based soaps are quite widely available.

Sodium acid pyro-phosphate-450-Halal-Sequestrant, mineral salt

Sodium alginate-401-Halal-Stabilizer, thickener, vegetable gum

Sodium ascorbate-301-Halal-Vitamin C, preservative, colour fixative

Sodium bicarbonate-500-Halal-Chemical preservative

Sodium bisulfite-222-Halal-Chemical preservative

Sodium caseinate-469-NonVeg (Halal)-Binding agent, nutrient

Sodium citrate-331-Halal-Controls acid, improves and protects flavour

Sodium cyclamate-952-Vegetarian-artificial sweetening substance

Sodium hexameta phosphate--Halal-Sequestrant, water blending agent

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate--Halal-Whipping agent

Sodium metaphosphate-452-Vegetarian-insoluble mineral salt

Sodium phosphate-339-Halal-Sequestrant

Sodium saccharin-954-Vegetarian-artificial sweetening substance

Sodium stearate--Questionable-Conditioning agent

Soft Drinks ---Some canned Orange drinks use gelatine as a carrier for added

Beta Carotine. (This would not appear on the ingredients panel).

Sorbic acid-200-Halal-Chemical preservatives

Sorbitan monostearate-491-Questionable-Emulsifier, surfactant

Sorbitol-420-Halal-A sugar alcohol formed by the reduction of the sugar

glucose or fructose. Medicinally, it is used as a diuretic since it can be metabolized without insulin. However, excessive use of sorbitol may cause diarrhoea and gastrointestinal distress.

Soup --NonVeg-Watch out for the stock.

Sour Cream Solids--Questionable-without gelatin

Soya Sauce--Halal-only all purpose Seasoned with out alcohol

Sperm oil--NonVeg (Halal)-A liquid wax from the sperm whale

Spermaceti -- Cetyl Palmitate--NonVeg (Halal)-A solid constituent refined from sperm oil

Spirits (alcoholic that is!) --Haram-Possible problems with fining and filtering.

Stannous chloride-512-Halal-Chemical preservative

Stearates --Questionable-This usually comes in the form of _calcium stearate_, and it is found in hard candies like Gobstoppers and Sweetarts as well as other places. It comes from stearic acid, which usually is derived from tallow, or animal fat. Stearate is also used in vinyls (like car seats) and plastics

Stearic Acid -570-Questionable-Stearic acid is used as a binder in foods, and its source may be either animal or vegetable. It is found in vegetable and animal oils, animal fats, cascarilla bark extract, and in synthetic form. It is used in butter flavoring, vanilla flavoring, chewing gum and candy, fruit waxes, and may not be vegetarian

Steriods--Questionable-(sic), could be misspelling for steroids

Stock --NonVeg-May contain animal fat.

Sucralose-955-Vegetarian-artificial sweetening substance

Sucrose acetate isobutyrate-444-Vegetarian-emulsifier, stabiliser

Suet --NonVeg-Usually made from animal fat, vegetable versions are available.

Sweetener--Halal-Substance that gives a sweet taste.

Sweets ---Look out for gelatine in boiled sweets and mints, and cochineal in boiled sweets and Smarties. (some vegetarian sweets are listed by chocolate manufacturers.)

Tallow--NonVeg (Haram)-Fats from either cattle or beef. One should enquire whether the tallow used is from a zabiha animal.

Tannin--Halal-Also known as tannic acid. Tannins are used in tanning, dyeing, photography and as a clarifying agents for beer and wine.

Tartaric Acid-334-Halal-It is widely distributed in nature and is classified as a fruit acid. Practically, all of the tartaric acid sold today is a by-product of the wine industry. In products, it is used in soft drinks, confectioneries, bakeries and in pharmaceutics, it is used as a buffering agent. Although tartaric acid is naturally found in grapes, its isolation is from wine-making industry. Hence, one has to be careful when tartaric acid is added to food products.

Thiamin--Halal-One of the B complex vitamins.

Tocopherols concentrate-306-Questionable-mixed, antioxidant

Tofu--Questionable-Halal if the coagulant is halal.

Toothpaste ---Many brands contain glycerine.

Torula Yeast grown on liquor--Questionable-Haram if grown on liquor, halal if grown on sugar cane or halal sulfite waste


Tryptophan --Questionable (Halal)-Amino acids mainly from from meat, eggs, and milk. Plant sources of amino acids are often weak in lysine and tryptophan.

Uric Acid--Questionable-Found in the urine of mammals and it is in the solid form in the urine of birds and reptiles. Uric acid or urates are used for treatment of some central nervous diseases. Synthetic uric acid is o.k. to use.

Vanilla Extract--Haram-A flavouring extract made from the vanilla bean and used in candy, ice cream, and perfumes. The flavour extracted from vanilla beans is most commonly dissolved in alcohol. Documentation from a distributor of vanilla extract showed that the ingredient contained 50% alcohol

Vanillin or Vanillic Acid--Halal-Obtained from vanilla or produced synthetically. Please note thatsome types are dissolved in alcohol before they are used. This makes them unlawful to consume. Be wary about this.


Vitamin A--Halal-If source are plant and synthetic, it is halal.

Vitamin C-300-Halal-Natural sources are from plant. (e.g. citrus fruit, tomatoes, etc).

Vitamin D--Halal-Natural sources are yeast and fish liver oil. Also synthetically produced.

Vitamin E-306-Halal-Rich sources of Vitamin E are vegetable oils. When source is synthetic, it is halal. If source is animal, it is suspected.

Vitamins--Questionable-Haram when from animal source. Mostly the source is synthetic or plant and are Halal. Vitamin D2 is produced by sunlight acting on bacteria, however D3 is derived from lanolin from sheeps' wool therefore only D3 which is guaranteed sourced from wool sheared from live sheep is considered acceptable.

Washing powder ---Soap based powders may contain animal fats.

Water--Halal-The nutrient most vital to man's existense.

Waxes --Questionable-Naturally occurring esters of fatty acids and monohydric alcohols. Now refers to both natural and manufactured products resembling these esters. Typical animal waxes are sperm oil, a liquid wax from the sperm whale, and spermaceti, a solid constituent refined from sperm oil; lanolin, or wool grease, the principal constituent of the natural wool fat of sheep; and Chinese wax, a secretion of insects. Vegetable waxes occur on the exposed surfaces of many plants, particularly on leaves, protecting the plant against the excessive loss or gain of water.

Whey and Whey Powder--Questionable-The watery part of milk that separates from the curd when milk sours and becomes coagulated, or when cheese is made. Rennet is used to curd the milk. Whey should be avoided because the rennet used to curd the milk could be from a non-halal source.

Wine --Haram-May have been fined using isinglass, dried blood, egg albumen, gelatine, chitin. Vegetarian alternatives include bentonite, kieselguhr, kaolin and silica gel. Non vintage port is fined with gelatine.

Wool ---May not be so sheep friendly.

Wool Fat --NonVeg-See Lanolin

Wool Wax--NonVeg-See Lanolin

Worcester Sauce ---Most brands contain anchovies.

Xanthan gum-415-Halal-A natural gum with a high molecular weight that is produced by the fermentation of glucose and is used in the food industry as a stabilizer

Xylitol-967-Vegetarian (Halal)-humectant, stabiliser

Yeast--Questionable (Haram when it produces ethyl alcohol during fermentation)-Fermenting agent

Yoghurts --NonVeg-Some low fat yoghurts contain gelatine.

Zein--Halal-A protein obtained from corn.

What is Gelatin?

What is Gelatin?
Edible gelatine is a natural foodstuff. The raw materials used in its manufacture are skin (pigskin and hide split) and bone taken from slaughtered animals that have been approved for human consumption. The collagen contained in these raw materials is the actual starting material used for the manufacture of gelatine.

Native collagen is a scleroprotein based on a polypeptide chain comprising approximately 1,050 amino acids. Three of these chains form a triple helix.
Superimposition of many of these triple helices produces fibrils of collagen that are stabilized by cross-linking, hence forming a 3-dimensional network structure. This particular structure renders collagen insoluble; it is then brought into soluble form by partial hydrolysis as gelatine or gelatine hydrolysate.
The amino acid content of collagen and hence of gelatine is about one third glycine and a further 22% proline and hydroxyproline; the remaining 45% comprise 17 amino acids. Gelatine has a particularly high content of acidic and basic amino acids. Of the acidic amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid), about 1/3 is present in the amido form as glutamine and aspargine. Cystein is completely absent; of the sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine is the only one present, in low proportion.

Commercially available edible gelatines have the following composition:

• 84 - 90% protein
• 8 - 12% water
• 2 - 4% mineral salts

They contain no fat or carbohydrates, no purine or cholesterol and are in addition free of all preservatives. All edible gelatines comply fully with all bacteriological standards.

Gelatin in our food
Gelatine is a modern foodstuff that is used in nume-rous industrial applications. Wherever gellating agents, stabilizers, binding agents, emulsifiers, filmformers, foaming agents and creaming agents are required, this practically invisible, neutraltasting product is used.
In addition, gelatine can be used for protein enrichment, the reduction of fat and carbohydrates, as a carrier and for the reduction of salts. These various applications, however, require different types of gelatine; the right selection requires expert advice. The GELITA Applications Service provides such advice through highly qualified and experienced food technologists. Thus, our product range includes gelatine for every application.

The development of semi-fat, low-fat and light products would often not be possible without gelatine. Whether semi-fat butter or margarine, low-fat pastries, reduced-fat cheese preparations, soft cheeses or sugarfree and gumbased sweets, both gelatine and gelatine hydrolysate are commonly used. The reasons for this are that gelatine binds large quantities of water to form a gel and that it provides such products with properties that make them pleasurable to eat, an aspect that is particularly important for new products.

Gelatin in Paper (MONEY?!?!?!?!)
In the paper industry, our technical gelatine is used as an impregnation agent and adhesive. It is even used in to protect banknotes from the effects of light and hence make them more durable. In particular, technical gelatine is used in the lamination of large surface areas, e.g. board games, files and displays. And perforated, folded cartons make for attractive packaging.

Other advantages: our gelatines are suitable for universal application, can be processed highly flexibly after drying, are biologically degradable, highly recyclable and neither swell nor
fold during processing. The material to be impregnated takes up less water due to the gelatine, facilitating time planning – an important criterion for large-surface impregnation.

Gelatin in Matchsticks
What is actually inside a matchstick head?

The answer: gelatine always! Each matchstick head consists of a complex chemical mixture containing technical gelatine. The role of the gelatine is, when the mixture is elutriated, to bind the various chemicals together. In addition to its binding power gelatine has a further advantage: when the reaction mixture is foamed, pores form within the matchstick head, thus making ignition possible.

Geltin used in Restoration
Masterful architecture has fascinated people for centuries.
However, no building can be expected to last forever – from time to time it has to be carefully repaired and refurbished. When restoring such historical buildings, experts often make use of the natural elastic binding properties of GELITA special gelatines, which are used e.g. to treat the surfaces of ornate stucco. This technique of fine priming comprises a number of highly complex steps but is effective for restoring stucco marble. Between the various grinding stages warm gelatine is applied using a natural hair brush and the surface then further processed.

Thanks to our special gelatines, monuments such as the Opera House in Dresden, and the Alexander III Bridge, the largest in Paris, are able to be seen in their original grandeur.

In the field of book restoration gelatine can be used in a number of ways. Since the middle of the 19th century paper has been manufactured from wood. However, the acid wood glue used at the time tends to become brittle in modern archives and libraries. Today, gelatine is used in book restoration as a "natural glue" for repairing such brittle patches or for reglueing pages. Gelatine can also be used for fixing the color and typescript of historical texts. The famous Dresden Music Scores that were damaged in the floods of the year 2000 were restored with the help of gelatine.

Gelatin in Washing and Cleansin agents
Collagen hydrolysates and collagen surfactants have been used for quite some time as components of washing and cleansing agents. As additives in washing up liquids, their dermatological advantages are used to protect the skin from the more aggressive surfactants commonly used. As fibre-protecting proteins, they are particularly useful as components in special cleaners for woollen, silk and other sensitive textiles where their effect can be literally felt.

Collagen hydrolysates and collagen surfactants have been used for quite some time as
components of washing and cleansing agents. As additives in washing up liquids, their dermatological advantages are used to protect the skin from the more aggressive surfactants commonly used. As fibre-protecting proteins, they are particularly useful as components in special cleaners for woollen, silk and other sensitive textiles where their effect can be literally felt.

Collagen surfactants combine the properties of mild washing raw materials with those of collagen hydrolysate as found. Special products such as our development GELITA BIOWASH® have numerous advantages:

Surface activating, good washing quality, complex forming, dermatologically safe and biologically degradable.

In their function as cobuilders, greying inhibitors and enzyme stabilizers they fulfil all the requirements of a modern detergent additive.

Gelatin in Pet Food
Gelatine and special collagen hydrolysates (GELITA FLEX®) are used as binding agents e.g. in the manufacture of bars and pellets (snacks/reward articles). Apart from the technological improvements incorporated, the high protein content of the products show special positive effects in degenerative disease of the animal skeletal system as well as in improved pelt growth.

Gelatin as nutrition sourc for starter cultures, vitamins and
Specially composed GELITA gelatine hydrolysates (e.g. GELITA BIOTEC®) are especially suitable as nutrient media – complex sources of nitrogen – due to their constant composition. This has been proven by numerous studies carried out in international institutes (including, among others, an article in the Journal of Biotechnology 30/93 entitled: "Use of collagen hydrolysate as a complex nitrogen source for the synthesis of penicillin by Penicillium chrysogenum"). These peptones have also been used in various industrial studies, e.g. in the manufacture of starter cultures, vitamins and antibiotics. These results have been published or presented at symposia.

Gelatin in stationary (Carbon-free copy paper), adhesives, etc
The special characteristics of gelatine as a protective colloid and the fact that its electrical charge is dependent on pH make it attractive as a wall material in microencapsulation. Gelatine and its derivatives can be used in the encapsulation of:

• Inks for carbon-free copy paper
• Chemicals for multi-component adhesives
• Vitamins for special applications

A further example for the application of special gelatines is the encapsulation of fragrances. A good example is the "scratch & sniff" perfume
advertising in the print media: microencapsulated fragrance oils are processed into printing varnish; when the surface is rubbed, the fragrance is released – all due to gelatine!
*gives paper its fragrance

Gelatine coatings (Pots and pans??)
How can gelatine help in the manufacture of silver cutlery, pots and copper pans?

GELITA gelatines are frequently used in galvanizing techniques. Added to galvanizing and electro-plating baths, they develop their protective colloid effect, hence enhancing the gloss and uniformity of the metallic coatings produced. They have proven to be particularly effective when used with copper alloys.

Apart from classical modified gelatines, methacrylated gelatine has been developed and internationally patented by
GELITA. It is characterized by its ability to polymerize. It can thus be used for other applications in addition to the classical ones such as micro-encapsulation, e.g. in the manufacture of packaging materials. In this application, UV hardening is used to promote crosslinking. The excellent film-forming properties of methacrylated GELITA gelatine make it eminently suitable for coating techniques e.g. in the manufacture of packaging material of minimal permeability for oxygen, aromas and water vapour. The application- and processrelevant properties of such coatings and laminates, as determined by GELITA in cooperation with scientific institutes under practice conditions, show that methacrylated gelatine is particularly suited to the manufacture of flexible packaging for food, pharmaceuticals and other sensitive products.

Gelatin in Fertilisers
Due to its adhesive effect and reduction of surface tension the technical gelatine hydrolysate (GELITA TEC) manufactured by the GELITA Group is used extensively as leaf fertilizer. Due to the slow degra-dation of amino acids, the precisely adjusted nitrogen concentration is made available over a longer period of time; this favors the metabolism of the plants treated. Specially selected gelatines and gelatine hydrolysates are also used a biologically degradable binding agents in the manufacture of fertilizer pellets.

Gelatin used for Cloth Protection
A perfect outfit - that's what makes fashion such fun! Our gelatine products help here by protecting the materials during manufacture. Acting as a sizing agent, the gelatine prevents the fibers from breaking during the high-speed dyeing and weaving process. The sizing agent is washed out once the process is complete. Apart from its binding and adhesive properties, the gelatine sizing agent, as a protein, also has the advantage of being biologically degradable.

Gelatin in Cosmetics
Natural collagen proteins from are important components of modern skin- and hair care products

Collagen, collagen hydrolysate and, recently of increased use, plant protein hydrolysates, possess properties that are essential for the care and protection of skin and hair.
These natural biological cosmetic ingredients are isolated and purified using mild extraction or gentle enzymatic degradation (using a method specially developed by GELITA). They are dermatologically compatible and free of all contaminants.

Protein and skin care
High-molecular, native collagen is an important moisture retainer used in creams and lotions and is suitable for all types of skin. It has been proven that collagens increase hydration, improve skin feeling and decrease the extent and depth of wrinkles.

Protein hydrolysates or wheat protein hydrolysate (GELITA PLANTASOL® ), due to their film-forming properties, provide additional positive effects by contributing to skin smoothness and softness. They also have a remarkably high capacity for radical capture. The protective function of collagene hydrolysate is particularly important in shower- and bath products. Apart from substantially reducing the skin and mucous membrane irritation brought out by conventional anionic surfactants, the skin becomes smoother and drying out is prevented.

Protein in hair care
Protein hydrolysates isolated from collagen or plant raw materials are valuable components of hair care products due to their affinity to keratin. Their film-forming properties improve the gloss, and handling of hair, especially if previously treated with chemical preparations. In permanent waving and bleaching, proteins have a substantial protecting effect on the hair structure. Addition of protein hydrolysates to hair coloring sprays and toners enables hair to absorb the dyes more uniformly. Natural dyes in particular show increased absorption and more intense coloring. In leave-on products, the natural conditioning effect of protein hydrolysates is noticeable.

Gelatine for all Types of Capsules
In pharmaceutical technology, the properties of gelatine such as film formation, thermoreversibility and adhesion are particularly important. The most important application areas for pharmaceutical gelatine are the manufacture of capsules and the embedding of vitamins.

Gelatine capsules are an elegant and widespread pharmaceutical dosage form; they enable drugs to be easily and safely administered whether in liquid, paste or solid form. At the same time, pharmaceuticals in capsule form have a high degree of bioavailability. Pharmaceutical capsules enable active ingredients to be formulated with long shelf lives, protected from light and oxygen. Depending on the nature of the substance to be encapsulated, either hard- or soft capsules can be used. Soft capsules are the more suitable for liquid or paste fillings based on oil whilst hard capsules are used in general for powdered substances.

Hard capsules are made of pure gelatine and have a water content of about 10-15 %. They are generally produced with added dye. They are produced using an immersion process and subsequently supplied to the pharmaceutical industry as closed empty capsules. In a separate process, they are then opened, filled with substance (e.g. powder or granulate) and closed off.

Soft capsules on the other hand are formed, filled and closed off in the one process. The designation soft capsule implies that the outer wall contains, apart from gelatine, a plasticiser, the degree of softness and elasticity of which depends on the quantity and type of plasticiser used, the residual moisture and the thickness of the capsule wall. Soft capsules tend to have thicker walls than hard capsules. Glycerine and sorbitol, or a mixture of both, are normally used as plasticisers.

Soft capsules are generally produced using the rotary die method, a process invented by Robert Pauli Scherer towards the end of the 1920s: in this process, two dyed and highly elastic bands of gelatine are passed through rollers. Whilst the capsules are being formed, they are filled with the required active ingredients. Gelatine-coated tablets (caplets) represent a new technical development in this area: using an immersion process, tablets are covered with a gelatine film and subsequently dried. This particular technology enables the economical advantages of tablet manufacture to be combined with the advantages of gelatine capsules for patients. The GELITA Group is the leading company world-wide in the supply of gelatine for all types of capsules.
Gelatine also plays an important part in the preparation of oil-based vitamin (A+E) preparations of long shelf life and easy applicability, both for human and animal consumption. Finely distributed vitamin A- or E oil drops in aqueous gelatine solution can be converted, by means of appropriate solidification and drying procedures, into a free-flowing powder; this can then be dissolved in aqueous solution but remains highly dispersed. The coating of vitamins with such special gelatines enables them to be protected from light and oxygen during long-term storage. In addition, the coatings can be prepared in such a way that they dissolve in both warm and cold solutions, as e.g. in the case of effervescent vitamin tablets.
Gelatine sponges play an important role in dental and surgical applications. These are prepared by foaming a gelatine solution and subsequently drying and hardening. Such blood-staunching gelatine sponges are completely resorbed in the course of wound healing. GELITA is one of the leading manufacturers of such gelatine sponges and supplies numerous domestic and foreign companies who then sterilize, pack and market the finished product.
In emergency medicine, blood replacement solutions based on gelatine are frequently used in cases where substantial blood losses have been incurred. Special gelatine quality is used for such plasma expanders; the pharmaceutical companies involved then subject it to heat or enzyme treatment and possibly modify it chemically before sterile-packaging it.
Gelatine is also used for a number of other medical and technological applications: in the manufacture of skin-compatible zinc-treated bandages, as a granulate-, tabletting- or sugar-coated tablet excipient or as a thickener for a number of drug dosage forms.

Gelatine in photography
A unique combination of specific properties makes gelatine a key component of photographic films and papers

Gelatine is utilized as a binder in light-sensitive products. It's gel-setting and filmforming properties are ideal for making clear, uniform and durable coatings which can be more than 15 layers thick in a single application.
Gelatine is indispensable in photographic coatings including silver halide emulsion layers, top coat or surface layers, interlayers and back coats. The chemical/colloidal properties enable precise precipitation and chemical ripening of photographic silver halide emulsions. Gelatine also stabilizes coupler and dye emulsions which are utilized especially in color photographic products. Gelatine's properties are required for high-speed photographic films, especially to reach the high sensitivities required for color films and medical x-ray products.

Photographic gelatine products are custom designed to meet the exacting needs of each customer. Products from the GELITA Group are well received for use in applications including graphic arts, amateur and professional photography, medical/diagnostic films and also in specialized applications including products for industrial non-destructive testing (NDT), holography, 3-dimensional imaging and emerging digital imaging products.

Gelatin in Confectionary (Candy / Tofee / Sweets)

Gelatine is a modern foodstuff that is used in numerous industrial applications.

Wherever gellating agents, stabilizers, binding agents, emulsifiers, filmformers, foaming agents and creaming agents are required, this practically invisible, neutraltasting product is used.

In the confectionery industry, gelatine and gelatine hydrolysate are used due to their following properties:

• Gel formation
• Foam formation
• Foam stabilization
• Texturing
• Emulsification
• Binding agent

All modern requirements e.g. for crystalclear gels in fruit- and wine gums and dessert jelly and excellent foam formation and stabilization in the production of marshmallows can be fulfilled if the right type of gelatine is selected for the production processes involved.

In caramel and liquorice sweets, gelatine provides excellent texturing and mouthfeeling. In the case of pastilles, an elastic structure and excellent melting properties can be provided by gelatine whereas in the case of lozenges and compressed substances, its binding properties guarantee perfect stability of form.

By substituting carbohydrates, sugarfree gums can be produced for diabetics.

Gelatin in Bakery Products
In the bakery industry, powder gelatine, leaf gelatine and
instant gelatine are primarily used for the binding or gellating of fillings as well as for the stabilization of creams.
The GELITA Group has a complete range of gelatine products for such applications.

Whipped fillings are rendered stable by the

addition of gelatine whilst retaining excellent "mouthfeeling".

Gelatine can also be used for the attractive enrobing/glazing of e.g. doughnuts.

Gelatin in Meat and Sausage Products
Gelatine can be used to produce crystal-clear, sliceable aspic meat and sausage products. Special types of gelatine, (e.g. GELITA®) are available for producing edible dips and coatings. These provide the necessary adhesion. Both gelatine and gelatine hydrolysates, available in the highest quality, can be used to optimize technological and sensory quality parameters, e.g.:

Reduction of jelly and fat residues in canned sausage

Improvement of spreading quality and softness in emulsified sandwich spreads

Whipping agent for low-calorie sandwich spreads

Improved homogeneity of binding in cooked sausage

Protein enrichment in cured meats

Rapid reduction of aw-values and shorter maturation times in raw sausage preparations

Stabilization of emulsions, dispersions and suspensions
In addition, color, taste and aroma are improved. Addition of gelatine hydrolysate can lead to a reduction in the use of salt without inhibiting taste.

This application, developed and patented internationally by GELITA Group, is gaining in importance in many other countries.

Gelatin in Dairy Products and Desserts
Gelatine enhances the texture of dairy products in an optimal way. Many product properties can be controlled by using different quantities and types of gelatine, e.g.:

Gelatine acts as a protective colloid in yogurts, thus preventing syneresis; at the same time, the consistency can be adjusted from creamy to almost solid.

Soft cheese can be adjusted in consistency from creamy to sliceable.

Cream and toppings can be stabilized to retain their shapes.

Sour cream retains its spreading and good melting qualities.

Its ability to bind water, form emulsions and provide stability enables it to be used in the production of low-fat dairy products.

The melting behavior of ice cream is substantially enhanced due to the improved emulsion and finer crystal structure made possible by the addition of gelatine. In this particular application, gelatine is frequently combined with other hydrocolloids.
Gelatine is used in many dessert dishes. Crystalclear, firm to soft gels are required for dessert and fruit jellies; these can be fulfilled by selecting the most suitable gelatine type.
In the production of whipped mousse and cream desserts, excellent foam formation and stability of the gelatine used are important selection criteria.

Different types of instant gelatine with different gelling properties can be used in the production of ready-to-eat desserts, both in mass production and in individual households. Whether for basic recipes for chocolate mousse, tiramisu or semolina pudding, GELITA® instant gelatines from the GELITA Group provide all of these products with a unique texture.

Gelatin in Beverages
Gelatine to remove substances causing turbidity or tanning

The clarification of wine and juices is carried out for two main reasons:
1) Substances causing turbidity or tanning that would otherwise have a negative effect on optics and taste are removed.
2) Such preclarification can enhance the efficiency of many of the centrifuges installed in modern production facilities.
Gelatines with a low bloom value as well as protein hydrolysates in powder form or as solutions (e.g. GELITA KLAR®) are particularly suitable for such applications as they can be distributed evenly without gelling, even in cold beverages. Turbidity particles, due to their possessing an opposite electrical charge, form aggregates which then precipitate; they can then be easily removed. If necessary, gelatine treatment can be enhanced by adding silicic acid solution or bentonite. This helps to give the wines or juices the desired degree of brilliance.

Raw materials for Gelatine
Gelatine is manufactured from three raw materials

Gelatine from GELITA Group is manufactured from selected collagenous raw materials from pigs (pigskin), cattle (split) and their bones. These materials are taken only from animals that have been released for human consumption by the relevant veterinary authorities.



The principal suppliers of pigskin are slaughterhouses and meat processing factories. There, the split is separated from the underlying layer of fat and, depending on the distances involved, transported to our gelatine factories fresh, cooled or deep-frozen. If necessary, the material is stored in our own refrigerated warehouses until required.

The mid-layer of the animal skin is an important raw material in gelatine production. Subsequent to slaughter, the skins are sent to skin-processing factories where they are subjected to intensive washing with milk of lime or other alkaline solutions to remove the hair.

The skin is then separated into three layers:
• the flesh-containing subcutaneous layer, which is removed
• the upper skin, which is then processed to leather
• the remaining mid-layer, which is used for gelatine production

Prior to transporting to the gelatine factory, lime or salt is added as a preservative. Once at the factory, the skins are thoroughly washed and cut into hand-sized portions.


Gelatine produced from this source is primarily for photographic and pharmaceutical applications. The raw material is obtained directly from slaughterhouses, general processing and meat-processing factories. A complex process then begins: the bone is first chopped into sugar cube-sized pieces; the fat and any residual flesh adhering to the bone are then removed in a combined process involving water, heat and agitation. The bone is then dried, sorted according to particle size and demineralised, leaving a material known as ossein which is the actual starting material in the manufacture of gelatine.
Production Of Gelatin, some Gelatin Haram?
Preparation of raw materials (Gelatin)

Two principal processes are employed in the manufacture of gelatine:

Acid process - for type A gelatine:

The raw material (primarily pigskin) is first subjected to a 3-day digestion process. Here, the material is treated with acid and immediately afterwards the gelatine extraction process can be commenced.

Alkaline process - for type B gelatine:

This process extends over a period of several weeks and gently converts the collagen structure. Only ossein or split can be used. The collagen produced in this way is soluble in warm water.


Warm water is then added to the pre-treated material and a multi-stage extraction process commences. The first gelatine fractions obtained, at low temperature, have the highest gellation status; an approximately 5% solution is obtained. The remaining material is then extracted using fresh, warmer water. This process is repeated until the last traces of gelatine are extracted using boiling water. As the pre-treatment carried out is extremely thorough, very little residue remains after extraction.