Thursday, May 1, 2008

Halal & Haram Relate to

Alcohol And Fermented Products

Alcohol is widely used as a carrier in many food flavors. This alcohol will evaporate if used in baked or heat treated products. Some Islamic scholars consider a food product Halal if it is made with all Halal ingredients including food flavor containing alcohol as a carrier which will evaporate during food processing. But other Islamic scholars do not consider such products as Halal.



Nature Of Fermentation


Acid and Acohol


Acid and Alcohol


Medium Acid

Cultured Buttermilk

Low Acid

Cultured Cream

Low Acid

Leben & Dahi

Medium Acid


Acid, Diacetyle, Propionic Acid & CO2

Pickles from cucumber and sauerkraut from cabbage are made by salting (brining). No alcohol is produced during the processing of these products. However, when flavors are added, those flavors may or may not contain alcohol as a carrier.

Cheeses And Its Halal Status

The following things have to be Halal in order for a cheese to be considered Halal:

  • Ingredients used to make the Mother Culture growth Media
  • Ingredients used to make the Bulk Culture growth Media
  • Milk Coagulating Enzyme, such as Microbial rennet used to coagulate milk or Rennet obtained from Zabiha slaughtered calves
  • Fat Hydrolyzing Enzyme, such as Microbial Lipases
  • Dairy ingredients such as Non Fat dry milk solid or cream or dry milk added
  • Artificial color such as artificial blue or green color is added to neutralize natural yellow color in curd for Asiago or Blue cheese
  • Media to grow mold Penicillium roquefortti providing blue color in blue cheese
  • Harmless plant based enzyme is added for curing or flavor development and growth media for biological curing agent used on the surface of Brick cheese
  • Flavoring, hydrolyzed lactose, whey for cold packed cheese food, gelatin is allowed in cream cheese but most manufacturer use gums instead of gelatin

The Food Flavors
The food flavor of a food substance is the combined sensation of the taste and odor as perceived by the eater or drinker of that substance. The food flavorings are available to the food industry producer as solids, liquids, and paste. The food flavoring is manmade and they are compounded from natural and/or synthetic aromatic substances which may or not be found in nature. Flavors may be a mixture of any flavors or flavoring ingredients such as Process Flavors, Hydrolysates, Fat Flavors, Autolysates, Enzyme Modified Flavor with addition of carriers, antioxidants, solvents and flavor enhancers. The impact of natural flavors on Halal food products can be best described in McDonald's French Fries and Hash Browns. The raw French fries and hash brown are made with Natural flavor as indicated on their ingredients list. But nobody know except the suppliers and McDonald that the natural flavor is made of Non-Zabiha beef extract. Muslims should be very care full of following flavors in meat cheese related products such as meat Loaf seasoning, gravies and process cheese products. Meat, Savory Flavors and Extracts:
  • The McDonald raw French fries and Hash Brown are made with a food flavor containing Non-Zabiha beef extract.
  • Dairy Flavors containing animal enzymes.
  • Alcohol as an ingredient and Carrier in flavors

Cultured Lipolyzed Cream
Cultured lipolyzed Cream is considered Halal if the culture media which is used to grow cultures is made from Halal ingredients. The use of microbial Lipase enzyme is the second requirement for cultured lipolyzed cream to be considered Halal. Cultured Lipolyzed Cream is made with use of cultures and Lipase enzyme. Lipase enzyme is used to split milk fat into free fatty acids eventually leading to methyl ketones, lactones and other volatile compounds for flavor.

Gelatin is a derived water soluble protein made by controlled hydrolytic conversion of collagen, the protein constituent of white fibrous connective tissue from animals. It is obtained from beef bones and calf skin
(Gelatin type B) or from skin, hide splits and trimming of pork
(Gelatin type A). Gelatin is also obtained from fish. The fish gelatin is started coming to markets in 1993 (Muslim Consumer Group reported in one of Chicago Muslim news paper in 1993).

It is expensive than pork and beef and also provide little unpleasant smell to the food products. Fish gelatin is used in Procter & Gamble's Sunny Delight fruit drinks. It is combined with Beta carotene a plant based color as a processing aid ingredient (not reported under the ingredients list) to help disperse the Beta carotene in liquid system.

Fish gelatin was also used by Saputo Cheese Company under Stella, Frigo, Lorraine and Dragone brands for low fat and reduced fat cheeses. The Fish gelatin meets the Islamic dietary requirements and is considered as a Halal ingredient. Majority of Muslims do not purchase food products containing gelatin but a minority of Muslims consume food products made from Non-Zabiha beef gelatin. If these products are not under kosher certification, the manufacturer can change the source of gelatin from Non-Zabiha to pork.

Kosher Gelatine
There is a big confusion about Kosher Gelatin which is now used very extensively in yogurts, sour Cream, Cottage cheese and Ice Cream.

There are four type of kosher gelatin in the food products but none of them meet the Islamic dietary requirements and considered not Halal.

Different kosher certifying organizations have different beliefs. For example kosher organization in Canada with symbols OU, COR, MK, BCK, Kuf K, CRC, Circle K do not consider pork gelatin as a kosher gelatin. Kosher organizations with kosher symbol K, KO accept pork gelatin as a kosher product. So the statements such as " Gelatin is considered Kosher regardless of its source of origin" which appears in many Halal foods books is not true.

Gelatin in Jell-o Gelatin products is made from pork and considered kosher by a Rabbi who certify these products with a kosher symbol K. These products are Haram.

Kosher gelatin is also obtained from non kosher slaughtered cattle bones and skin in China which is certified by a Rabbi in Florida. This gelatin is used in majority of Dannon Yogurts( Dannon's Premium Low Fat Plain, Premium Non Fat Plain and Natural Plain with UD kosher symbol do not contain any gelatin and considered as Halal products) and other brand of yogurts.

Kosher gelatin is also made from pork source and listed as kosher gelatin in some products with kosher symbol KO.

The Union of Orthodex Jewish Congregation of America certifies a Kosher gelatin which is made from cattle. These cattle are slaughtered according Jewish laws by a Sochet (A Rabbi). This kosher gelatin is used in Entenmann's Frosted Toaster Pastries with kosher symbol UD. Many Islamic Scholars do not accept kosher meat as the meat of Ahle-Kitab because Sochet (Rabbi) do not announce the name of Allah and other prayers on each animals. Only fish gelatin and gelatin made from the bones and skins of Halal animals slaughtered according to Islamic Sharia is considered Halal.

Kosher Symbols:
Allah says in Quran " This day are (all) things are good and pure made lawful unto you. The Food of the people of the books is lawful to you and yours is lawful unto them" (Sura 5, Ayat 5).

If an authentic and genuine non meat kosher certified food products bearing kosher symbols such as OU, COR, MK, BCK, Kuf K, CRC, Circle K, V, Triangle K and Parve meet the Islamic dietary requirements, then those products are considered Halal. However if they contain gelatin, kosher gelatin, wine, alcohol, L-cysteine from human hair, wine vinegar, rum flavor, beer batter then they will not be considered as Halal food products. For example if a food product contains gelatin or Kosher gelatin and also bears kosher symbol, then it will not be considered Halal. We do not recommend Kosher meat for Muslims because they do not announce Allah's name on each animal. Majority of Muslims do not consider it Halal. Besides, the Zabiha meat is accessible to Muslims in USA and Canada.

  1. Gelatin
  2. Kosher Gelatin
  3. L-Cysteine made from human hair
  4. Wine
  5. Liquor
  6. Beer batter
  7. Rum flavor
  8. Ethyl Alcohol as a main ingredient appears on the ingredient list
  9. Cochineal or Carmine, a red color from insects
  10. Naturally Brewed Soy Sauce
  11. Yeast Extract or Autolyzed Yeast made from brewer's yeast, a by product of beer making
  12. Torula Yeast grown on alcohol
  13. Nucleotides (building block of nucleic acid) are obtained from yeast cells grown on alcohol, used in Infant Milk formulas to help babies build a good immune, digestive system and decreased incident of diarrhea
  14. Vanilla Extract
  15. Wine Vinegar
  16. Ethyl alcohol is used as a solvent in natural and artificial flavors.

Lipolyzed Butterfar
The use of microbial Lipase enzyme is the requirement for lipolyzed butterfat to be considered Halal. Lipolyzed butterfat is made by use of Lipase enzyme to break butter fat to provide flavor.

L-Cysteine From Human Hair
L- Cysteine is a non essential amino acid used in bakery products as dough conditioner. It helps keep the dough from shrinking in case of pizza crust and pita breads. It is also used in bagels. It also reduced mixing time. The L-Cysteine is made from human hair, chicken feathers and synthetic material.

L- Cysteine from Halal synthetic material is Halal certified by Majelis Ulema of Indonesia and sale by Ajinomoto USA. BagelEz is a dough conditioner from Caravan Company of New Jersey. They used Halal certified L-Cysteine. According to Islamic Scholars the L-Cysteine made from human hairs is considered as a Haram product

Yeast Extraction Or Autolyzed Yeast
Yeast is a single celled plant that has been useful to mankind since pre-historic times. There are numerous applications of yeast in the food industry.

a. Baker's Yeast:
The role of baker yeast in baking industry is to leaven bread and related products. Baker's Yeast is a Halal yeast.

b. Brewer's Yeast:
This type of yeast is used in fermenting sugar in malt to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide in beer making.

c. Wine Yeast:
This yeast is used in making wine.

d. Alcohol Yeast :
Yeast is used in production of alcohol.

e. Torula Yeast:
Torula Yeast grows on sulfite waste and sulfite liquors. It is also grown on sugar cane. Torula yeast grown on sulphite liquor containing alcohol is not recommended for Muslims. If it is grown on sugar cane then it is considered Halal.

f. Autolyzed Yeast Extracts or Yeast Extracts:
Autolyzed yeast extracts are available as a powder derived from Baker's Yeast or Brewer's Yeast. After brewing the beer, the brewer yeast is separated from the beer and subjected to self digestion, the hydrolysis of yeast cell protein by the proteolytic enzymes indigenous to yeast cell. Brewer's yeast extracts are used in soups, meat products, gravies, snacks, crackers, part of some of the culture media in cheese making. It is used in flavors and also vitamins. Baker's yeast extracts are used in non flavoring foods.

Vanilla And Vanillin
Vanilla is the most world prized flavor. It is obtained from the beans of a tropical vine of genus vanilla. The beans at harvest do not have the characteristic vanilla fragrance but requires curing processes to obtain the vanilla fragrance.

All curing methods involve four basic phases:
Wilting or killing of the beans that stops the natural respiratory metabolism and vegetative life of the pod. Sweating the wilted beans which involves a fairly rapid dehydration and slow fermentation. The characteristic flavor compounds develops here during which sugars, phenols, vanillin compound are developed by enzymatic and non-enzymatic reaction. Drying of sweated beans at very slowly at a lower temperature to 20-25% moisture. Conditioning of the dried beans in closed boxes for a few months where they finish the development of their characteristic fragrance.

Vanilla Standards:
Vanilla extract is the only flavoring material with a US FDA standard of identity. It is included in the code of Federal Regulation.

Vanilla Extraction and Ice Cream Standard:
Vanilla standards was developed and promulgated concurrent and in close relation with Ice Cream Standard.The labeling of Ice Cream is dependent on the type of flavoring used.

Category I:Vanilla Ice Cream contains only pure vanilla components and no artificial flavors.

Category II: Vanilla ice cream can be flavored with up toone ounce of synthetic vanillin per unit of vanilla extract. This is a natural and artificial product and labeled vanilla flavored Ice cream.

Category III:Ice cream contains predominantly or exclusively
an artificial vanilla flavoring that includes primary synthetic vanillin. This product must be labeled Artificially flavored or Artificial vanilla.

a. Vanilla Beans:
Vanilla beans are identified as the properly cured and dried fruit-pods of Vanilla planifolia in vanilla standard.

Vanilla Extracts and Vanilla Powders:
The reminder of the standard is involved with describing in general terms how the extract is made and what other ingredients can be used. It also defines other products related to pure vanilla extract (what constitutes them and how they can be labeled).
b. Vanilla extract (extracted with alcohol).

c. Vanilla flavoring (extracted with alcohol)
d. Concentrated vanilla flavoring (extracted with alcohol)
e. Vanilla powder (no alcohol is used)
f. Vanilla-Vanillin extract (extracted with alcohol)
g. Vanilla-Vanillin flavoring (extracted with alcohol)
h. Vanilla-Vanillin powder (Vanillin may be obtained with or without alcohol) The more significant statement in the standard, which should be noted, require that the finished extract have no less than 35% ethyl alcohol and contains no less than one unit of vanilla bean per gallon.

There is no animal derived ingredients are used in the above products.

a. New Methods of Extractions:
Modern methods of extraction are used such as supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and reverse osmosis for concentration. These methods produce useful products for industrial flavoring but they either fail to fit the regulatory requirements (alcohol extraction) for standard products, but they are expensive. These specialized products differ in solubility, flavor profile, and appearance but add to the list of natural vanilla flavoring available to food and beverages manufacturers.

b. Vanilla beans:
Pure Vanilla beans are available for both food manufacturers for processed foods and common consumers for home bake products (McCormik brand of pure vanilla beans are available in supermarkets).

c. Vanilla Flavor:
A vanilla flavor may be in fact being non-alcoholic but it has to be outside of standard of identity.

d. Vanilla Powder:
This is a standard vanilla product. Vanilla powder is a mixture of ground vanilla beans or vanilla oleoresin or both with one or more of the following optional blending ingredients (a) Sugars, (b) dextrose, (c) Lactose, (d) Food Starch, (e) dried corn syrup, (f) Gum acacia. Vanilla sugar is different from vanilla powder with sugar. Vanilla Sugar is made with sugar and vanilla extract and considered as Haram ingredient because of alcohol.

e. Vanilla-Vanillin Powder:
This is the same, as vanilla powder but contains not more than one ounce of added vanillin. This is also a standard product. But this product is Halal only if added vanillin is obtained from vanilla bean without alcohol.

Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) a pleasant smelling aromatic compound occurs naturally in vanilla bean and also obtained from as by-product of pulp and paper industry by the oxidative break down of lignin. It may also be prepared by synthesis.

(vanilla bean flavor component)
C8H8O3 C8H8O3
Molecular weight: 152.16 Molecular weight: 152.16

Artificial or synthetic vanillin do not contain alcohol and it is also Halal or Kosher certified. It is a Halal ingredient.

Artificial or synthetic vanillin is made with all Halal ingredients and Halal process without alcohol. Lignin which used to make the artificial vanillin is plant products which is Halal by nature. Only methane is used as a solvent which is a Halal solvent.

Some Islamic Scholars considered a food product Not Halal if it is made with flavor containing alcohol as a solvent. But the others considered it Halal because they said the small or large quantity of the product does not intoxicate a person. Please consult your Sheik or Imam on this topic.

Vinegar has been known for centuries. It is simply a dilute solution of water and acetic acid that contains coloring and flavoring agents in very small quantities from source of raw material. A typical distilled vinegar contains 95% of water and rest is acetic acid , minor constituents. It is made by two successive microbial processes, the first being an alcoholic fermentation effected by yeasts and the second an oxidation of alcohol by Acetobacter, a genus of aerobic bacteria.U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulation states that the unmodified name vinegar apply only to the product derived from apples and that this product contain not less than 4 g of acetic acid in 100 ml of vinegar. Vinegar also contains small quantities of ash, sugars, phosphoric acid, alcohol, and glycerol. Vinegar is made by two process; (a) The packed generator; and (b) the Submerged fermentation system. Air is used in both process.

Fermentation :
The fermentation of sugar into alcohol (ethanol) and which comprises the first step in manufacturing of vinegar using the yeast Saccharomyces sp.

Which proceeds as follow:
C6H12O6 -------> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 (sugar source) (Ethyl Alcohol) (Carbon Dioxide) The second fermentation step requires the microorganism acetobacter (Bacterium aceti) and oxygen as indicated below: 2C2H5OH + 2O2 ---------> 2CH3COOH + 2H2O (Ethyl Alcohol) (Oxygen) (Acetic Acid) (Water) Malt vinegar is used extensively in Britain, and wine vinegar in continental Europe. Distilled white vinegar and cider vinegar is preferred in USA and Canada.

Types of Vinegar:
There are six type vinegar is used throughout the world.
a. Distilled White or Grain or Spirit Vinegar: It is produced from the natural fermentation of dilute alcohol to vinegar. The vinegar is filtered and contains Natural mellow aroma.

b. Apple Cider Vinegar: It is produced from unprocessed apple juice and vinegar retains its natural amber color and fruity flavor.

c. Wine Vinegar: Wine vinegar is produced from Burgandy wine and other wines.It retains a ruby color and wine like flavor. It is used in Oil-Vinegar Dressing and gourmet cooking and condiments.

d. Corn (Maize) sugar Vinegar: This type of vinegar is produced from corn sugar. Sugar is first converted to alcohol then alcohol is converted to acetic acid and water. It is also a amber color vinegar.

e. Malt Vinegar: Malt vinegar is produced from the fermentation of malt to alcohol and then it is converted to vinegar.

f. Specialty Vinegar such as Balsamic Vinegar: Balsamic vinegar is produced in Modena Italy from white and sugary Trebbiano grapes with special labor intensive method to special flavor and aroma There is possibility of left over wine in this vinegar.

Halal Status of vinegar:
There is a different of opinion among Hanafi and Shafi fiqa schools regarding vinegar. There is also different of opinion among Islamic Scholars regarding wine vinegar. Since there is possibility of wine being not 100% converted to acetic acid and water. There is left over wine in the wine vinegar, we considered wine vinegar is not a Halal vinegar. We recommend distilled white vinegar because it is made from dilute alcohol. Please consult your sheik or Imam on this topic.

Vitamins Fortified Milk
Milk from buffalo, camel, cow and goat is Halal by itself however milk in the US and Canada from cows and goats must be fortified with vitamins A and D by law. California is the only state where milk can be sold without vitamin fortification. In 1994, the Muslim Consumer Group brought the following facts about vitamins fortification of milk.

a. Vitamins A and D must come from Halal source

b. An Emulsifier is mixed along with above vitamins as a processing aid ingredient to help vitamins to be mix and distributed evenly with milk so that it is satisfy the law requirement of a specific amount of vitamins per quart of milk. This emulsifier is not mentioned on the ingredient declaration on the milk containers because it is considered a processing aid. This emulsifier should not be from pork fat. It has to be from plant fat such as soy bean or from a Halal source.

c. This vitamins mixture must be certified as Halal or kosher.

d. There is no FDA regulations about the source of vitamins and the emulsifier. If a manufacturer wishes to use an emulsifier and vitamins from pork source, there is no law to prevent it.

e. It was strongly recommended to Muslims to check the source of the vitamins mix in their areas if there is no kosher symbol on the milk bottle, they should verify that dairy is using a kosher certified vitamin mix.

f. People who do not work in the food industry are not aware of the use of emulsifier in vitamins mix.


We also published how vitamin A and D are manufactured commercially for the milk industry based on published information from vitamin mix suppliers.
VITAMIN A: Vitamin A is produced commercially by reacting calcium carbonate with water and then esterified with palmitic acid (source can be from a plant or an animal or a synthetic).

VITAMIN D3: Vitamin D3 is produced from sheep's wool lanolin.

Some people write the source of vitamins for milk fortification from the books. This is not true for milk industry because the Vitamin Mix suppliers uses the least expensive source as mentioned above for their vitamin mixes for milk industry.

In the vitamin mixture for dairies, these vitamins are mixed with Water, Polysorbate 80 (an emulsifier), Propylene Glycol and Sodium Benzoate. These ingredients will not appear on the ingredients list of milk on its bottle because they considered as processing aid ingredients. We are the first Muslim organization to certify a Vita-Rite D3 (19259-76) vitamin mix from Tastemaker Company with the Halal symbol "H" on their label along with the kosher symbol V.

Tastemaker, Bungi Foods, Vitamins Inc., Danisco-Grindsted are the major suppliers for the vitamin mix (BASF and Roche vitamins are main suppliers of vitamin A & D) to the milk industry. These companies have kosher certified vitamin mixes and hence there are might others companies whose vitamin mixes must be verified for Halal or kosher status. If there is no kosher symbol on the milk bottle, please call the dairy company and confirm that they are using Halal or kosher certified vitamin mix. Many dairies do not have a kosher symbol on their milk bottle but still they use kosher certified vitamins. The east coast, Chicago and other major cities, except west coast have kosher symbols such as K, CRC, V on the milk bottles.

1. Grain and Plant based Ingredients
  • Agar,
  • Algin,
  • Allspice,
  • Amylase (alpha),
  • Anise,
  • Annatto,
  • Arrowroot,
  • Baker's Yeast,
  • Baker's Yeast Extract,
  • Basil, Bay Leaves,
  • Beta-Carotene (Vegetable oil carrier without gelatin),
  • Bran,
  • Bulgur wheat,
  • Cocoa Butter,
  • Caffeine,
  • Canola Oil,
  • Caramel,
  • Caraway,
  • Cardamom,
  • Carnauba Wax,
  • Carob,
  • Carob Gum,
  • Carrageenan,
  • Cheese & Dairy Culture (Halal or Kosher organism grown on Halal and Kosher media),
  • Chives,
  • Chocolate,
  • Chocolate Liquor,
  • Cinnamon,
  • Citrus Oil,
  • Clove,
  • Cocoa Powder,
  • Coconut,
  • Coriander,
  • Corn,
  • Corn Bran,
  • Corn Flour,
  • Corn Gluten,
  • Corn Meal,
  • Corn Oil,
  • Corn Starch,
  • Corn Syrup,
  • Corn Syrup Solids,
  • Cranberry,
  • Cumin,
  • Curry Powder,
  • Dextrin,
  • Dextrose,
  • Dill,
  • Durum Flour,
  • Enzyme( Alpha Amylase and Protease in bakery products,
  • bacterial rennet and bacterial lipase which is just started to sale in 2001 according to food industry sources in cheese),
  • Farina,
  • Fennel,
  • Fenugreek,
  • Flour,
  • Fructose,
  • Garlic,
  • Gellan Gum,
  • Ghatti Gum,
  • Ginger,
  • Gluten,
  • Glycerin (plant source only),
  • Graham Flour,
  • Grape,
  • Guar Gum,
  • High Fructose Corn Syrup,
  • Honey,
  • Horseradish,
  • Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil,
  • Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein,
  • Invert Sugar,
  • Karaya,
  • Kelp,
  • Licorice Root,
  • Locust Bean Gum,
  • Mace,
  • Maize,
  • Malt,
  • Maltodextrin,
  • Maltose,
  • Maple Sugar,
  • Maple Syrup,
  • Marjoram,
  • Margarine (from Halal or Kosher source),
  • Modified Food Starch,
  • Molasses,
  • Mustard,
  • Nutmeg,
  • Oat,
  • Oat Flour,
  • Oatmeal,
  • Olive Oil,
  • Onion,
  • Oregano,
  • Palm Oil,
  • Papa in,
  • Paprika,
  • Parsley,
  • Peanut,
  • Pectin,
  • Peppers,
  • Polydextrose,
  • Potato Starch,
  • Pregelatinized Starch,
  • Protease Enzyme,
  • Psyllium,
  • Raisin,
  • Rapeseed,
  • Rennet (Microbial only),
  • Rice,
  • Rye,
  • Safflower,
  • Saffron,
  • Sage,
  • Savory,
  • Semolina,
  • Sesame,
  • Shallot,
  • Sorbitol,
  • Soybean,
  • Soya Flour,
  • Soya Oil,
  • Soya Sauce (only all purpose Seasoned without alcohol) Spice,
  • Starch,
  • Sugar,
  • Sunflower,
  • Tapioca Starch,
  • Textured Vegetable Protein,
  • Tocopherol (from plant),
  • Tofu (if Halal coagulant used),
  • Tragacanth, Turola Yeast (grown on Sugar Cane or Halal sulfite waste) ,
  • Turmeric,
  • Vanilla Bean,
  • Vital Wheat,
  • Wheat,
  • Wheat Flour,
  • Xanthan Gum,
  • Xylitol, zein.

2. Mineral, Chemical, Synthetic based Ingredients

  • Acetic acid,
  • Alum,
  • Aluminum Ammonium Sulfate,
  • Ammonium (Bicarbonate, Carbonate, Chloride, Sulfate),
  • Ascorbic acid,
  • Azodicarbonamide,
  • Dry Artificial Colors (not extracted with alcohol, liquid color only kosher certified only with Halal solvent),
  • Artificial Flavors (made from Halal or kosher ingredients only),
  • Aspartame,
  • Baking Powder,
  • Baking Soda,
  • Beeswax,
  • Benzaldehyde,
  • Benzoic acid,
  • BHA,
  • BHT (only with 100% vegetable oil as a carrier),
  • Calcium (Carbonate, Chloride, Citrate, Sorbate, Sulfate),
  • Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC),
  • Chlorine,
  • Citric Acid,
  • Cream of Tarter (without alcohol based source),
  • L-Cysteine (only from petroleum or synthetic source),
  • Dicalcium Phosphate,
  • Dipotassium Phosphate,
  • EDTA,
  • Dry FD&C Colors only (if liquid then only with Halal or only kosher certified),
  • Ferric Oxide,
  • Ferrous Sulphate,
  • Folic Acid (plant based),
  • Fumaric Acid,
  • Glucon-Delta-Lactone,
  • Glycerin (synthetic source only),
  • Iron,
  • Lactic Acid,
  • Magnesium Carbonate,
  • Magnesium Stearate (if Stearate from plant fat only),
  • Methyl Cellulose,
  • Monocalcium Phosphate,
  • Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, only with plant derived material, enzyme and media),
  • Natural Flavoring (Oleoresin of Spices such as Black Peppers,
  • Paprika and other spices mostly used in Tomato Ketchups and other products extracted other than alcohol),
  • Natural Flavors (Halal & kosher source without Alcohol),
  • Niacin,
  • Oleoresins of spices,
  • Phosphates,
  • Phosphoric Acid,
  • Potassium (Bicarbonate, Bromate, Sorbate),
  • Propionic Acid,
  • Propylene Glycol (from petroleum & Halal source only),
  • Propyle Gallate,
  • Riboflavin,
  • Saccharine,
  • Salt,
  • Sea Salt,
  • Silicon Dioxide,
  • Sodium Acetate,
  • Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate,
  • Sodium Aluminum Phosphate,
  • Sodium Aluminum Sulfate,
  • Sodium Benzoate,
  • Sodium Bicarbonate,
  • Sodium Carbonate,
  • Sodium Citrate,
  • Sodium Hydroxide,
  • Sodium Lactate,
  • Sodium Lauryl Sulfate,
  • Sodium Metabisulfate,
  • Sodium Nitrate,
  • Sodium Nitrite,
  • Sodium sorbate,
  • Sorbic Acid,
  • Tartaric acid ( from grape only not from wine),
  • TBHQ (only with vegetable oil as a carrier),
  • Thiamine Mononitrate,
  • Titanium Dioxide,
  • Tricalcium phosphate,
  • Vanillin (made with Halal Synthetic material, without Alcohol and kosher certified ),
  • Vinegar (only distilled white vinegar).

3. Dairy Ingredients (made with chemical, Halal or kosher enzyme, cultures and culture media) with kosher symbol on the food packages only:

  • Acid Casein,
  • Butter fat Lipolyzed,
  • Buttermilk Solids,
  • Caseinates (Sodium & Calcium),
  • Rennet Casein,
  • Cheese Powder,
  • Cream, Cultured Milk,
  • Cultured Cream Lipolyzed,
  • Dried Milk, Lactose,
  • Nonfat Dry milk,
  • Sour Cream Solids (without gelatin),
  • Reduced Mineral Whey,
  • Whey,
  • Whey Protein Concentrate.

4. Ingredients made from Plant or Vegetable Fat with kosher symbol on food package only:

  • Calcium Stearate,
  • Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate,
  • DATEM,
  • Diglyceride,
  • Ethoxylated Mono- and Diglycerides,
  • Glycerin,
  • Glycerol Ester,
  • Glycerol Monostearate,
  • Hydroxylated Lecithin,
  • Soya Lecithin,
  • Enzyme Modified Soya Lecithin (Halal or kosher enzymes),
  • Soybean Oil,
  • Margarine,
  • Mono- and Diglycerides,
  • Monoglyceride,
  • Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Shortening,
  • Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids,
  • Polyoxythylene Sorbitan Monostearate,
  • Polysorbate 60,
  • Polysorbate 65,
  • Polysorbate 80,
  • Propylene Glycol Monostearate,
  • Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate,
  • Softener,
  • Sorbitan Monostearate,
  • Tocopherol,
  • Vegetable Oils (Canola, Corn, Cottonseeds, Olive).

5. Ingredients from Egg and Fish:
  • Albumin,
  • Eggs,
  • Egg White,
  • Egg Yolks,
  • Gelatin (from fish only),
  • Lecithin (from eggs but very expensive to produce now a days).

6. Halal Vitamins used in Food products (from Halal or Kosher Source):
Vitamin A as Retinol (from eggs, milk & plant source): For the dairy industry it is made from by reacting Calcium Carbonate with water then esterified with Palmitic Acid (from plant fat only) and used to fortify Milk.
  • Vitamin B1: As Thiamine (synthetic and from eggs)
  • Vitamin B2: As Riboflavin (from leafy vegetables, eggs and milk)
  • Vitamin B5: As Pantotherric Acid (from eggs)
  • Vitamin B6: As Pyridoxine (from eggs)
  • Vitamin B12: As Cyanocobalamin (from fish and milk)
  • Vitamin C: As Ascorbic Acid (from plant or synthetic)
  • Vitamin D as Calciferol:
For the dairy industry it is made from sheep's Lanolin (wool) for fortifying the milk. Vitamin E: As Tocopherol (from vegetable, eggs and milk) Vitamin K: (from vegetable source)

1. Haram Ingredients from Alcoholic Fermentation:
Alcohol in dry form is used as ingredient, Alcohol as solvent in flavor, extracting ingredients for color, spices, Bear, Bear Flavor, Bear Batters, Fermented Cider, Hard Cider, Rum, Torula Yeast grown on liquor, Soya Sauce (Naturally brewed with wheat and soy as mentioned in ingredient list with 1-2% alcohol), Sherry Wine, Vanilla Extract, Wine, Wine vinegar.

2. Haram Ingredients from Human Body:
L - Cysteine (from Human Hairs).

3. Haram Ingredients from Pig:
Bacon, Ham, Gelatin, Enzymes (such as Rennin, Pepsin), Marshmallow containing pork gelatin, Pork, Bacon bits.

4. Ingredients from pig may be mixed with grain & plant based ingredients:
Beta-Carotene (pork gelatin may be used as a carrier for proper dispersion of Beta-Carotene), Cheese & Dairy Cultures (if the media for growing cultures contains pork fat), Enzyme Modified Soya Lecithin (pork enzymes), Tofu (if the coagulant is from Haram source).

5. Mineral, Chemical and Synthetic Ingredients mixed with pork by-products:
Artificial Flavors (made from pork by-products), BHA & BHT (if the carrier from pork by-products).

6. Dairy Ingredients made from pork enzymes or Cultures grows on pork fat:
Butter fat Lipolyzed, Buttermilk Solids, Caseinates (Sodium & Calcium), Rennet Casein, Cheese Powder, Cultured Cream Lipolyzed, Cultured Milk, Lactose, Sour Cream Solids (also with pork gelatin), Reduced Mineral Whey, Rennet, Whey, Whey Protein Concentrate.

7. Ingredients made from Pig Fat:
  • Calcium Stearate,
  • Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate,
  • DATEM,
  • Diglyceride,
  • Ethoxylated Mono- and Diglycerides,
  • Glycerin,
  • Glycerol Ester,
  • Glycerol Monostearate,
  • Hydroxylated Lecithin,
  • Lard,
  • Margarine, Mono- and Diglycerides,
  • Monoglyceride,
  • Natural Flavors (if any ingredient from pork fat),
  • Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids,
  • Polyoxythylene Sorbitan Monostearate,
  • Polysorbate 60,
  • Polysorbate 65,
  • Polysorbate 80,
  • Propylene Glycol Monostearate,
  • Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate,
  • Softener,
  • Sorbitan Monostearate,
  • Tocopherol.

8. Vitamins from pig's liver & other pig parts:
  • Vitamin A,
  • Vitamin B 5,
  • Vitamin B 6,
  • Vitamin B 12,
  • Vitamin E,
  • Vitamin

Encapsulated Food Ingredients And Their Halal Status
Pharmaceutical industry is using encapsulation of bitter antibiotic medicine since long time. The use of encapsulation of food ingredients is on the rise in the food industry. The use of encapsulation in food industry is to protect the ingredient for controlling the delivery of maximum flavor in the finished product, physical appearance of the product such as baked product where loss of height of cinnamon or raisin bread due to adverse effect of the cinnamon and acid leaching from raisin on yeast activity.

The loss of flavor intensity due to heat of the processing and much other processing issue. Beside encapsulation, there other new process of protecting the ingredients during processing is on rise such as micro fluidization is a unique technique of combining high pressure homogenization and heat denaturization, Liposomes which is a lipid (fat) cavity, Coacervation where two liquids mixed together through colloid, milk fat coated microcapsule, use of matrix material for coating, lecithin vesicles, timely release capsules, fluid bed, spray drying and use of modified food starch for coating and many more techniques. The material used for capsulation is gelatin, gum Arabic, cellulose gum and other colloidal material.

There are four things to be look for the Halal status of the encapsulated ingredients such as:
  • Halal status of ingredient itself
  • Halal status of Bulking or Carrier material
  • Halal status of Encapsulation, Liposome, coacervation, matrix materials
  • Halal or Kosher certification of encapsulated or coated ingredients

The Gum Arabic, Cellulose gum, Modified Food starch and pure milk fat are Halal materials for capsulation and coating.

Possibility of Halal Prducts Become Haram
If a product is made with only Halal ingredients without Halal or kosher certification and one of the ingredient is encapsulated with pork gelatin then the product becomes Haram because gelatin in the encapsulating material will not appear on the ingredient list because it is a processing aid ingredient. So we have to be careful about it and inquire with the food manufacturer if they are using any encapsulated ingredients in their products. The best protection is to consume the Halal certified or kosher certified (if the kosher certification meets the Islamic dietary requirements because not all kosher certified products are Halal) food products.

Area Creat Of Tartar And Tartaric Acid Halal?
Tartaric Acid is an acidulant that occurs naturally in grapes. It is used in grape and lime flavored beverages and grape flavored jellies. It is used as an acidulant in baking powder. Cream of Tatar is the acid potassium salt of Tartaric acid. It is used as a chemical leavening to release carbon dioxide, which produces loaf volume in bake products. Tartaric acid and Cream of Tartar in USA is made from unfermented crushed grapes according to Tartaric Acid manufacturer. So both are Halal since it is made from unfermented crushed grape. But in other countries like South Africa the tartaric acid is made from the deposits left over on wooden barrels after wine making. These deposits are washed before making the tartaric acid. In that case Halal status of Tartaric acid is questionable and has to be decided by the Islamic scholars.

Turmeric As An Ingredient In Food Products Are Not Always Halal
Turmeric is used as a coloring ingredient in many food products but it is not available in 100% pure Turmeric to food manufacturer. Other ingredients are added as processing aid or hidden ingredients to help dissolve or disperse in a food product. The 1.5% Warner Jenkinson's Turmeric Powder is composed of cellulose(Halal), Propylene Glycol(Halal), Turmeric(Halal), Polysorbate 80( an emulsifier which could be from pig fat or beef fat or vegetable fat) and Silica(Halal). Warner Jenkinson's Turmeric is a Kosher certified powder. The Polysorbate 80 is from vegetable fat. But it is possible that other supplier may not use the vegetable fat based emulsifier. If you find Turmeric under ingredients list of a food product, do not buy the product unless it has a Halal or Kosher symbol on the package.

Colored Cherries Are Not Always Halal
The cherries are artificially colored and also it is colored with carmine (carmine color is obtained from insects/beetles and this color is not considered Halal). If the cherries are colored with artificial FD&C then there is a chance FD&C might contain pork glycerin as a solvent. So colored cherries have to be Halal or Kosher certified. Colored cherries are added in fruit cocktails. If the fruit cocktail can does not have a Halal or Kosher symbol, then the fruit cocktail containing colored cherries is not Halal. So always look for Halal or Kosher symbol in a product containing colored cherries.

Food Colors Such As Yellow No.5 Or Red No.40
Food colorants which act as food additives are either Natural or synthetic derived. FDA categories the colorants in use as GRAS (Generally Recognized AS Safe). Natural Colorants:
  • Annatto
  • Antocyanins
  • Beet root juice and betanin
  • Beta-carotene (Halal only if Fish gelatin or Zabiha gelatin or Vegetable oil is used as a carrier)
  • Canthaxanthin
  • Caramel
  • Cochineal and carminic acid (They are not considered as Halal because all insects are Haram according to Imam Abu Hanifa)
  • Paprika powder and paprika oleoresin
  • Turmeric and turmeric oleoresin

They are Halal only if used in pure powder or granules forms. They are not Halal if they are extracted with ethyl alcohol. Please call the manufacturer to confirm that no alcohol is used as a extracting solvent.

Synthetic Colors
Synthetic Colorants are FD&C (Food and Cosmetic) Dyes and Aluminum Lakes which are available in powder, granular and liquid forms. A dye is a pure chemical which exhibits coloring power when it dissolved in only water because it will not mix with oil. So pure dye color as a powder or granule or dissolved only in water is Halal. A Lake pigment is an insoluble chemical which colors by dispersion. All the synthetic colorants are certified by FDA and FDA allows only the following solvents for dispersion and carrying agents:
  • Glycerin (Haram, if it is from pork fat)
  • Propylene Glycol (Halal)
  • Dextrose (Halal)
  • Sucrose (Halal)
  • Vegetable Oil (Halal)
  • Water (Halal)

How to Find Halal Status Of Synthetic Colors
There are three ways to find the Halal status of synthetic color such as yellow no. 5 in a food product.

  1. The manufacturer of the food products containing synthetic colors are only one who know in what form the synthetic colors are added to a food product. We do not recommend this approach if the said food product is not under Halal/Kosher certification because the manufacturer can change the form of color from powder to liquid.
  2. If the product is Halal certified with Halal symbol such as "H" under Triangle. This symbol indicates only Halal carriers are used in a liquid color which is added to the said food product.
  3. If a kosher symbol such as U or UD, Circler K, Triangle K, CRC, COR, V, kuf K appears on the food product containing FD&C Yellow No. 5 or FD & C Red NO. 40 or any synthetic color.This kosher symbol on the package indicates no pork glycerin was used as carrier in the synthetic colors.
  4. Hidden Ingredients In Food Products, These ingredients are called processing aid ingredients and they help the ingredients or food products to over come some processing problem. FDA allows processing aid ingredients in a food product or ingredient up to 2% maximum of the formula. It means that 98% of the formula of a food product or food ingredient are listed on the package under ingredients list and remaining 2% of the formula which may contains one or many ingredients are excluded from listing on the package under ingredients list.

Halal certified or Kosher certified food products (which meet the Halal requirements) protect Muslim consumers from Haram processing aid or hidden ingredients. Here are the examples of processing aid or ingredients in a food product or in a food ingredient:

Ingredient & Food Package

Unmentioned Hidden Ingredients

Apple Juice

Gelatin (used to remove cloudiness in apple)

Beta Carotene

Vegetable oil or gelatin/Halal with U symbol

Bagel (Fresh)

Bacterial Amylase Enzyme (Halal) added as an ingredient


Vegetable oil or animal fat

FD&C Yellow No. 5

Vegetable oil or glycerin (animal fat/plant fat) and other Numbers colors

Milk with Vitamin A & D

Polysorbate 80 (a plant fat based emulsifier), Propylene Glycol (petroleum) and Sodium


Benzoate (All Vitamins Mixes are Kosher certified & Halal)

McDonald French Fries

Non-Zabiha Beef extract in Natural Flavor

Majority of cheeses

Growth Cultural Media used to grow Starter Growth Cultural Media used to grow Starter Cultures added to milk for cheese making Rennet Sodium Chloride, Boric acid, Sodium Benzoate

Soy Sauce (Naturally Brewed

3% Ethyl Alcohol (Haram Ingredient)

Sunny Delight

Fish Gelatin in Beta carotene color

Turmeric Color

Polysorbate 80 a fat based emulsifier

How can the ingredients be identified as Halal in a food product?

There are three ways of identifying Halal ingredients:
  • The word " Vegetable" is mentioned before or in parenthesis for fat based ingredients statement of a food product; for example vegetable Mono and Diglyceride.
  • If a Halal symbol such as "H" in triangle or kosher symbol such as U, UD, V, CRC, KMH, COR, MK and BCK appear on the package (without wine, alcohol, all types of gelatin, L-Cysteine from human hair), it means that the fat based ingredient is obtained from vegetable fat.
  • Inquiry with the food manufacturer is another way of identifying them. The purpose is to verify that the ingredients are Halal or kosher certified and also to inquire about any haram processing aid ingredients which are not mentioned in the ingredients list. Sometimes manufacturer uses Halal or kosher certified ingredients without finished product being Halal or kosher certified, breads and buns are the best example. Some manufacturer have Halal or kosher certified products but prefer not to have Halal or kosher symbol on their products.

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